Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Clerodendrum myricoides (Hochst. Vatke) Leaves and Its Solvent Fractionsin Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Convulsion in Mice

Teketel Eristu Kediso, Tesfaye Tolessa, Fikirte Getachew, Eyasu Makonnen, Daniel Seifu

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i330163

Introduction: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that affects people of all ages. Herbal medicines are widely used across the globe due to their wide applicability and therapeutic efficacy. The low side effects of traditional herbal medicines have encouraged many types of research into antiepileptic activity. Clerodendrum myricoides is a plant whose leaves extract is traditionally used as an anticonvulsant in Ethiopia. 

Objective: The point of this investigation was to assess the anticonvulsant effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract and solvent fractions of C. myricoides leaves against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice.  

Methods: Comparison of mean latency to onset of convulsion, mean duration of convulsions, and the proportion of percentage protection against seizure of the plant extract was tested against PTZ-induced seizures. Three different doses were used by giving them orally 30 minutes before subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (80 mg/kg) administration with the positive (diazepam 2 mg/kg) and negative (physiological saline 10 mg/kg) control groups. Data were presented as the mean ± standard error of the mean and analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and followed by post-hoc Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. Fisher’s exact test was used for the percentage protection. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The crude extract of C. myricoides, with the doses of 300, 600, 1,200 mg/kgshowed a significant delay in mean latency to onset of seizures [299.33±30.129 sec (p< 0.05); 387.167± 27.6 sec (p<0.01); 417.833±31.9 sec (p<0.001); respectively)]; decrease in the duration of convulsion [27.333±1.585 sec (p<0.05); 16.833±1.537 sec (p<0.01); 10.50±0.671 sec (p<0.001) respectively]; and a proportion of percentage protection of mice against seizure [16.33% (1/6) (p< 0.05); 33.33% (2/6) (p<0.01); 50% (3/6) (p<0.001) respectively] in a dose-dependent manner compared to the control group [92.833±13.006 sec; 34.167±3.683 sec, 0%  respectively]. C. myricoides anticonvulsant activity was less than that of diazepam [1001.16± 68.430 sec, 4.500±0.619, 83.33 sec, 83.33% respectively for the doses]. Its solvent fractions, however, didn’tshow a significant anticonvulsant effect.

Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic leaves crude extract of C. myricoides has anticonvulsant activity but its solvent fractions do not have comparable significant effects.   

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Activity of Senna alata, Senna bicapsularis and Pityrogramma calomelanos

Florencia Guerra, Abdullah Adil Ansari, Rajini Kurup, Gomathinayagam Subramanian

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 11-21
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i330164

Aims: Senna alata (Carrion crow bush), Senna bicapsularis (Money bush) and Pityrogramma calomelanos (Wild maran) are known for their value in traditional medicine. The study was an effort to identify, environment friendly antifungal compounds from these locally available plants against fungal pathogen Curvularia lunata.

Study Design: An experiment based study done to identify antifungal property and phytochemical identification of C. lunata.

Place and Duration of Study: Plants were collected from the coastal areas of Guyana and identified at the Biodiversity Center, University of Guyana, Guyana between January 2017- May 2017.

Methodology: Phytochemical extraction was conducted using soxhlet and rotovap apparatus. Hexane, methanol and aqueous extracts of plants were analyzed for antifungal properties. Antifungal activity was tested using the poisoned food and well diffusion technique. Data analysis of the study was done using R-Studio Program for statistical computing and graphics. A Tukey test was done along with ANOVA and Boxplots.

Results: Methanol extract of P. calomelanos showed maximum antifungal activity with an inhibition percentage of 60.3% at 400 µl, with poison food technique. With well diffusion method, P. calomelanos showed an inhibition zone of 54 mm at 500 µl. Saponins, steroids and glycosides were identified with methanol extract of P. calomelanos.

Conclusion: The finding of this study indicates, the possible use of P. calomelanos extract as an antifungal agent against C. lunata and its potential to control fungal plant diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Antioxidant Effects of Aqueous, Ethanolic and Methanolic Extracts of Morus mesozygia Linn. Stapf., Leaves in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Marcella Tari Joshua, Edna O. Nwachuku, N. Boisa, Nsirim Nduka

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i330165

Aim: The aim of this study was therefore to assess the antioxidant effects of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Morus mesozygia Linn. Stapf., Leaves in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

Study Design:  The study is an experimental case-controlled study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the Biochemistry Research Laboratory, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, between June 2018-April 2019.

Methodology: A total of 65 male albino rats that weighed between 150g to 200g were used for this research study. Three different extracted solvents; aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic leaves extracts were administered to different groups of the rats. The male albino rats for this study were induced with a single dose of 40mg/kg b.wt, intraperitoneally of streptozotocin in 0.1M of citrate buffer, pH 4.5. The diabetic male rats were those whose fasting blood glucose (FBG) were from 250 mg/dl or 13 mmol/L and above.

Results: The results showed that there were significant increases in the levels of superoxide dismutase(SOD,411.8±1.49) ng/ml, total antioxidant status (TAS,75.25±0.42) mU/ml, total oxidant status (TOS,353.51± 6.07) mU/ml activity, an oxidative stress index of 4.69±0.05 and a reduced concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA of 19.0± 1.49 mmol/L) when rats were treated with 400mg/kg of aqueous leaves of Morus mesozygia Linn. S., when compared with those of rats treated with 200mg/kg of aqueous leaf extracts of MMLS. Other methods of extractions (methanolic and ethanolic), also improved the antioxidant statuses of the diabetes induced and treated rats.

Conclusion: Methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Morus mesozygia Linn. S ameliorated oxidative stress, in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, with the methanolic extract showing the most potent effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethno Botanical Survey, Anti-leukemia and Anticlastogenic Potential of Medicinal Plants used for Treatment of Leukemia in Oyo State Nigeria

Adewale, Adetutu, Olusoji Abiodun, Owoade, Olanike Alabi, Fatima Aluko Abubakar, Olubunmi Simeon Oyekunle

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 31-51
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i330166

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Leukemia, a cancer of the blood and bone marrow is responsible for about 222.000 deaths annually. The side effects of chemotherapy in leukemia treatment have necessitated the search for natural products especially medicinal plants as alternative therapy.

Aim: This study surveyed common plants used for treating leukemia in Oyo state, Nigeria and assessed the anti-leukemic and anti-clastogenic activities of fractions of Nymphaea lotus.

Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire (1000) was used to collect the ethnobotanical data among the traditional healers. Leukemia was induced in albino mice with 400 mg/kg body weight of benzene intraperitoneally. Aqueous extracts (120mg/kg/bw), fractions and 5-florouracil (25mg) was administered to mice of different groups. The anti-leukemic, anti-clastogenic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective activities and hematological parameters were determined. N. lotus was subjected to gas-chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis.

Results: The ethnobotanical survey recorded 89 plant species with their local names and parts used in the traditional therapeutic preparations. Seven plants (Pistiastratiotes (2.5%), Nymphaea lotus (1.4%), Piper guineense (1.7%), Securinega virosa (2.5%), Calotropis procera (3.4%), Morinda lucida (2.5%) and Xylopia aethiopica (4.5%) with the highest frequency of citation were selected for anti-leukemic and anti-clastogenic screening. The aqueous extract of N. lotus and M. lucida displayed anti-leukemic potential. M. lucida and X. aethiopica improved the hematological parameters. Ethyl acetate fraction of N. lotus significantly (p<0.05) reduced the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte in the bone marrow and showed anti-leukemic activity. Fractions of N. lotus restored the hematological parameters and exhibited significant (p<0.05) antioxidant activity. Histological observation revealed improvement in the liver general cyto-architecture of mice treated with ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of N. lotus. Some known compounds were identified in ethyl acetate fraction of N. lotus.

Conclusion: Most of the species tested had some anti-leukemic effect in mice, which to some extent supports their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of leukemia. The study also identified potential anti-leukemic compounds in N. lotus extract. The study also identified potential anti-leukemic compounds in N. lotus extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Enhancing Effect of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Leaf Fractionated Extracts on Naja nigricollis Reinhardt Venom in Albino Rats

Ibrahim Sani, Rabi’u Aliyu Umar, Sanusi Wara Hassan, Umar Zaki Faruq, Fatima Bello

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 52-63
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i330167

The lethality of snake venom is mainly attributed to its phospholipase A2 component that hydrolyzes cellular phospholipids, leading to the release of arachidonic acid that generates potentially toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Imbalance between excessive generation and poor removal of ROS causes lipid peroxidation leading to cellular damage. Hence, this research was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant-enhancing effect of Azadirachta indica leaf fractionated extracts on Naja nigricollis venom in albino rats. A. indica leaf was collected, authenticated and extracted using 95% methanol followed by fractionation using hexane and ethyl acetate. Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay was used for the in vitro test, while, in vivo experiments were conducted using Albino rats. The in vitro antioxidant effect of the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions presented ferric reducing power of 68.80 ± 1.40% and 71.54 ± 2.12% respectively. This are closely related to those of ascorbic acid (78.50 ± 2.80%) and α-tocopherol (75.00 ± 1.85%). The results of the in vivo tests indicated that a single injection (0.195 mg/kg b. wt.) of N. nigricollis venom caused significant (P<0.05) elevation of hepatic and renal ROS levels (7 and 8 folds respectively) with a concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) compared to the control group. The ROS levels were decreased significantly leading to the decrease in the level of LPO in the envenomed rats treated with the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions compared to the venom control. The treatments significantly (P<0.05) increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in both the hepatic and renal homogenates compared to the venom control. The degree of protection against LPO by reducing the levels of ROS as well as increasing the activities of the antioxidant enzymes has significantly (P<0.05) increased when combine treatment of standard antivenin and any of the hexane or ethyl acetate fractions was considered compared to when each of them was used alone. Based on these findings, it has been established that, the tested extracts have antioxidant as well as antioxidant-enhancing effects against the oxidative toxicity of N. nigricollis venom.