Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and Phytochemical Properties of Crude Leaf Extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam., Pterocarpus santalinoides L’Herit DC and Ceiba pentandra L. on Some Clinical Bacterial Isolates in Nigeria

Reginald C. Njokuocha, Anthonia E. Ewenike

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i430168

Aims: The study was carried out to determine the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of fresh leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Pterocarpus santalinoides L’Herit DC and Ceiba pentandra L. on bacterial isolates; Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Methodology: The plant leaves were dried, pulverized and phytochemical tests were done according to standard laboratory procedure. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts were obtained from 20 g of the of the ground leaves. Antibacterial assay was carried out with Disc diffusion method on seven concentrations of the extracts ;100,50,25,12.5, 6.25,3.125,1.5625 mg/ml and compared with standard antibiotics. Isolated bacterial pathogens; Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.0 x 105 cfu /ml) were used as test organisms.

Results: Alkaloids, steroidal aglycones, glycosides, proteins, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, vitamins A and E were present in all the plant samples. Flavonoids and cardiac glycosides were not detected in Pterocarpus santalinoides and Ceiba pentandra, respectively. Anthracene glycoside was absent in all samples. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera showed antibacterial activities against all the bacterial isolates at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.125 mg/ml and 1.5625 mg/ml respectively. Pterocarpus santalinoides showed inhibitory activity only on Salmonella typhi at 3.125 mg/ml and Escherichia coli 1.5625 mg/ml MIC. Ceiba pentandra showed spectrum of antibacterial activity against all the bacterial isolates at 1.56 mg/ml MIC with exception of Salmonella typhi. E. coli was the most susceptible to the leaf extracts. Salmonella typhi was not sensitive to the leaf extracts of Ceiba pentandra, while Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not sensitive to the leaf extracts of Pterocarpus santalinoides.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that both aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts had antibacterial activity against the test organism, thus justifying their use in folklore medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Methanol Extract of Chasmanthera dependens Stem Mitigates against Mechanisms Involved in Piroxicam-induced Liver Damage in Rat

Tijani Stephanie Abiola, Olori Ogaraya David, Farombi Ebenezer Olatunde

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 16-28
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i430170

Chasmanthera dependens has been claimed by tradition healers as a therapeutic agent in many diseases including hepatotoxicity. This study sought to evaluate the possible mechanisms involved in the hepatoprotective potential of tannin-rich extract of Chasmanthera dependens stem (TRECDS).

Thirty two male Wistar rats (100- 130 g) were divided into four groups of eight rats per group labelled as group 1,2,3  and 4. The rats were treated orally for ten days consecutively.  Group 1 served as control group and received normal saline, group 2 rats received 40 mg/kg piroxicam alone, groups 3-4 were treated with 40 mg/kg piroxicam and 200 and 400 mg/kg TREDS respectively concomitantly. All the experimental rats were fed with standard rat chows. Twenty four hours after, blood was collected to obtain serum; liver was excised to prepare homogenate and histology staining under pentobarbital sodium anaesthesia. Liver function test (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT)) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO)) biomarkers were assessed. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β)) and apoptotic markers; caspase-3 (CASP-3) and caspase-9 (CAPS-9), cytochrome-c (CYT-c)) were also assessed.

The results showed that piroxicam administration caused hepatic damage as was evident in the histological assessment with increased serum activities of liver function markers, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptotic markers. TRECDS also showed significant attenuation of the oxidative stress by decreasing the LPO level and increasing the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH level.

Oral administration of TRECDS also restores the morphological structure of the liver in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion: Oral administration of TRECDS exhibited protective potential against piroxicam-induced hepatotoxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative Effect of Administering Avocado (Persea americana) Leaf Extract on Lead Acetate Toxicity in the Brain-cerebellum of Albino Rats

Ubi Essien Isaac

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 29-37
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i430171

Aim: To investigate whether the aqueous extract of avocado leaves can be used in alternative medicine for the remediation or treatment of lead poisoning in the brain.

Study Design: Pure Experiment, using animal models.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria; between January 2019 and June 2019.

Methodology: Twenty albino Wistar rats including both male and female, and weighing around 155 g were randomly assigned to four groups (designated as A,B,C and D), with each group consisting of five animals. While group A served as the control, group B was administered a daily dose of 500 mg/kg body weight of avocado leaf extract, group C received 150 mg/kg body weight per day of lead acetate, and group D was given 150 mg/kg body weight per day of lead acetate and immediately followed with 500 mg/kg body weight/day of the avocado leaf extract. Treatments were given once daily through the oral route using a syringe with attached micropipette tube for 15 days, while the animals had access to water and chow ad libitum. The rats were euthanized on the 16th day by cervical dislocation and the cranial cavity was carefully exposed in order to dissect the brain and to obtain tissue samples from the cerebellum, which were then prepared for microscopic examination using routine histological techniques, with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains.

Results: The findings showed the extract to be ameliorative by reducing histomorphological distortions of lead acetate toxicity in the brain, and thus caused moderate regeneration of the cerebellar tissue.

Conclusion: The outcome of this research therefore indicates that the avocado leaf extract has medicinal potentials and could serve as an herbal remedy in the alternative treatment of lead poisoning.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Methanolic Extract of Caryota no Seed on Geotactic Behaviour and Fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster

Chinonye A. Maduagwuna, Simeon Omale, Monday A. Etuh, Steven S. Gyang

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i430172

Aims: To investigate the effect of the methanolic extracts of Caryota no (CN) seeds negative geotaxis, fecundity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) using Drosophila melanogaster (DM).                                                                                                      Study Design: Experimental design.

Place and Duration: Sample: African Centre of Excellence for Phytomedicine Research and Development, University of Jos, Jos Plateau State Nigeria between June 2018 and February 2019                                                                                                  Methodology: 50 flies were exposed in each vial to the following concentrations: 300 mg, 350 mg, 400 mg, 500 mg and 600 mg of methanolic extracts in 5 replicates for 7 days with daily recording of mortality. Total protein assays were carried out by Randox method from the supernatant from homogenized whole flies. In vivo antioxidant activity study was conducted by measuring level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity from supernatants of whole fly homogenates using a spectrophotometer at specific wavelengths over a 2 minute duration. The values were derived as part of the total protein value. Negative geotaxis was done by the climbing assay and fecundity was examined by rate of emergence of larva after exposure of the flies to treatment. The statistical difference among test groups was presumed at P < .05.

Results: The methanolic extract of CN caused nonsignificant (P = .33) decrease in total protein levels compared to the control. There were also nonsignificant decreases in AChE (P = .30) activity, negative geotactic (P = .80) behaviour and nonsignificant increase in fecundity (P = .17) in the methanolic extract-treated flies compared to the controls.

Conclusion: It can therefore be concluded that the methanolic extract of Caryota no nonsignificantly improved fertitity and reduced negative geotaxis and AChE activity in DM.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of an Educational Intervention about Herbal Medicine on the Knowledge of Physicians and Pharmacists

Ede Tyrell, Karishma Jeeboo, Jewel Edmonson- Carter, Troy Thomas, Rajini Kurup

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 49-65
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v10i430173

Aims: To evaluate the effect of a video educational intervention, on the knowledge of physicians and pharmacists with respect to their awareness of the difference between local bush medicines (bush) and imported herbal medicines (herb); and, their uses, side effects, contraindications and drug interactions. Also, to determine if there was exposure to and an interest in formal training on Complementary, Alternative and Bush Medicine (CABM).

Study Design: A cross-sectional study of registered pharmacists and physicians in Guyana, attending their annual conferences, was carried out with a self-administered survey questionnaire on medicinal plants.

Methodology: Participants completed the Pre-Questionnaire; then were shown a video and subsequently given a similar Post-Questionnaire. The impact of the video was investigated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Wilcoxon Sign Rank tests and logistic and multinomial regression models.

Results: A total of 274 (134 pharmacists and 140 doctors) persons participated. The bush which most were aware of, was corilla/bitter melon, both in the pre-questionnaire (60%) and in the post-questionnaire (83%). Cranberry (pre-score 48%, post-score 51%) was the most identified herb. A comparison of the pre and post scores using the paired t-test (t=2.528, df=175, P=0.005) indicated improved awareness. Most persons were able to identify one use of corilla/bitter melon (pre-score 61%, post-score 70%). However, for the other bush/herbs, and for the side effects, contraindications and drug interactions, knowledge was lacking although there were significant improvements after the intervention. 44% indicated that CABM was part of their formal training and pharmacists were more likely to have had formal training. 88% were interested in further training.

Conclusion: The study found a paucity of knowledge about medicinal plants and therefore strongly recommends implementing formal education on CABM in university curricula and in future Continuing Education (CE) sessions. The video intervention had a significant impact and should be used as a template.