Open Access Short Communication

Antiproliferative Activity of Ethanol Extract of Boswellia dalzielii (Hutch) Stem Bark in Breast Cancer Cell Line

A. P. Otitoju, I. Y. Longdet, T. E. Alemika, V. P. Gota

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 11-16
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v11i230180

Aim and Objectives: The present study aimed to examine the antiproliferative activity of ethanol extract derived from the Boswellia dalzielii stem bark in breast carcinoma.

Methodology: Ethanolic extract of stem bark of Boswellia dalzielii were prepared. Antiproliferative activity was assessed in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cells by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay.

Results: Obtained results in 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay indicated that ethanol extract of Boswellia dalzielii stem bark showed significant antiproliferative activity in MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner. IC50 of Boswellia dalzielii stem bark ethanol extract in MDA-MB231 was 98. 12 μg/mL.

Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that Boswellia dalzielii stem bark extract possesses significant antiproliferative potential which could be mediated by the chemical constituents present in the plant. However, further research needs to be carried out to determine the effect of the extract on the cell cycle and also to determine the type of cell death produced by the extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytopharmceutical Standardization of Leaves of Jatropha tanjorensis J. L. Ellis & Saroja. (Euphorbiaceae)

Romanus A. Umoh, Uwemedimo F. Umoh, Imoh I. Johnny, Omodot T. Umoh, Victor U. Anah, Anwanabasi E. Udoh, Akwaowoh A. Elijah, Blessing E. Andrew

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v11i230179

Jatropha tanjorensis J.L. Ellis & Saroja. (Euphorbiaceae) is a shrub commonly used as an edible vegetable and is also used as a tonic herb. The study was aimed to evaluate pharmacognostic parameters of Jatropha tanjorensis leaves. The plant leaves were collected, air-dried, pulverized and stored in a clean glass container. Standard procedures were employed to obtain the microscopic features of the fresh and powdered samples, micromeritic, chemomicroscopy, fluorescence properties, moisture content, ash values and soluble extractive values were also carried out. The results of the microscopic studies using the fresh and powered leaf samples revealed the presence of anomocytic, anomalous and paracytic stomata on the abaxial surface and anomocytic stomata on the adaxial surface. The plant sample also possessed unicellular trichomes. Results of micromeritic properties of the powdered samples show bulk volume of 38.67±0.7, tapped volume of 30.00±0.4, bulk density of 0.26±0.00, tapped  density of 0.33±0.00, angle of repose of 350, Carr’s Index of 22.96±2.15, Hausner’s ratio of 1.27±0.03, pH of 7.51 and 7.52 when hot and cold respectively. Chemomicroscopy studies revealed the presence of lignin, mucilage, calcium oxalate crystals, starch and oil in the powdered leaf. Results for moisture contents was 18.33±0.01% w/w, total ash value was 9.33±0.00%w/w, acid-insoluble ash value was 0.67±0.01%w/w, water-soluble ash value was 4.0±0.00%w/w and sulfated ash value was 14±0.01%w/w. Results for ethanol-soluble extractive value was 15±0.00%w/w, methanol-soluble extractive value was 19±0.00%w/w and water-soluble extractive value was 27±0.01%w/w. In conclusion, the above evaluation and parameters could be used to establish pharmacopoeial standard of both fresh and powdered drug of Jatropha tanjorensis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Nephrotoxic and Hepatotoxic Potential of Artesunate in Malaria Patients

Ugonna D. Nwankpa, Henry N. Ogbonna, Chinedu E. Udekwu, Chibuzo V. Nwokafor

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 17-24
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v11i230181

Aim: To evaluate the nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic potentials of artesunate in humans.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria, between November and December 2019.

Methodology: 70 blood samples were collected from 35 normal individuals (control group), and 35 malaria patients treated with parenteral artesunate (treatment group). These were analyzed for biochemical parameters, including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, total bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The treatment group was further regrouped according to gender (19 males and 16 females), age (20 patients aged 20-29 and 15 patients aged 30-40 years) and duration of treatment (29 patients on 3rd or 4th day and 6 patients on 5th or 6th day of treatment). Biochemical tests were carried out using standard Randox test kits. One-way ANOVA was done on the parameters using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS), and comparisons were made.

Results: Compared to control group, the treatment group showed significant increases (p<0.05) in BUN (15.89+1.30 against 11.69+0.62), Creatinine (0.96+0.62 against 0.82+0.03) and AST (22.14+2.45 against 16.66+0.85), a non-significant increase (p 0.05) in ALT (26.57+3.18 against 21.66+2.56) and ALP (85.31+4.06 against 77.54+3.09) and a non-significant decrease (p 0.05) in total bilirubin (0.59+0.06 against 0.65+0.06). However, all parameters examined were within the normal ranges. There was no significant relationship found in any parameter in a comparison of gender, age and duration of treatment.

Conclusion: Since all parameters examined were in the normal ranges, administration of artesunate in the recommended dosage and the right duration may not have any significant toxic effect on the kidney and liver. However, further studies may be necessary to ascertain if the observed elevations could be attributed wholly to artesunate or other medications taken by the malaria patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Aromatherapy on Menstrual Distress among Adolescent Girls

P. Thenmozhi, K. Bhuvaneshwari

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 25-32
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v11i230182

Aim: To determine the effectiveness of Aromatherapy on menstrual distress among young adolescent girls with primary dysmenorrhea.

Study Design: Quantitative approach with Pre-experimental research design.

Place and Duration of Study: Saveetha College of Nursing, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, from December 2019 to February 2020.

Methodology: Sixty adolescent girls were selected for the study by using a convenience sampling technique. The participants who participated in the study were adolescent girls with 17 - 19 years of age, have regular menstrual cycle, having primary dysmenorrhea, and willing to participate in the study. Demographic variables and clinical variables were collected by using structured questionnaire. Followed by pre-test assessment on primary dysmenorrhea symptom was assessed on 5th day of menstruation by primary dysmenorrhea symptoms questionnaire. Aromatherapy was administered by inhalation method in alternate days from 7th day of menstrual cycle for two consecutive menstrual cycles. Post test was conducted at the end of intervention on the first day of menstrual cycle using the same tool. The data were tabulated and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS statistical package.

Results: The result of the study shows that in the pre-test, 54(90%) had moderate menstrual distress and 6(10%) had severe menstrual distress. Whereas in the post test, almost all 60(100%) had mild menstrual distress. pre-test and post-test mean score of menstrual distress was 62.83±2.93 and 33.03± 2.48. Which was compared by paired ‘t’ test revealed that the post-test mean value is lower than the pre-test mean value and  found statistically significant at the level of p<0.001

Conclusion: The finding of the present study concludes that aromatherapy using lavender oil is significantly effective in reducing the menstrual distress without side effects among adolescent girls with primary dysmenorrhea and also reduces the risk pharmacological intervention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytopharmacognostic Standardization of the Leaves of Buchholzia coriacea Engler. (Capparidaceae)

Romanus A. Umoh, Uwemedimo F. Umoh, Imoh I. Johnny, Anwanabasi E. Udoh, Victor U. Anah, Omodot T. Umoh, Akwaowoh A. Elijah, Ndifreke S. Essienutin

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 33-42
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v11i230183

Buchholzia coriacea Engl. is a medicinal plant belonging to the family Capparidaceae. It has antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antidiabetic and antihypercholesterol activities.  The aim of this study was to employ the quality control parameters in the evaluation of the leaf of B. coriacea. The plant leaves were collected, air dried, pulverized and stored in a clean glass container. Standard procedures were carried out to obtain the microscopic features of the fresh and powdered samples, micromeritic, chemomicroscopy, fluorescence properties, soluble extractive values, moisture contents and ash values.  The results of the microscopic study using fresh and powdered leaf samples revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata on the abaxial surface (hypostomatic) with mean length of 31.8 ± 0.6 cm. The cell shape was polygonal and straight anticlinal cell wall pattern. Results of the micromeritic properties of the powdered sample showed bulk volume of 31.00± 0.70cm, tapped volume of 25.1± 0.20 cm, bulk density of 0.32 ± 0.01g/m, tapped density of 0.39± 0.01g/ml, flow rate of 2.2 ± 0.08g/s, angle of repose of 26.1 ± 1.3 degrees, Carr’s index of 18.9± 1.35 %, Hausner’s ratio of 1.23 ± 0.02, pH of 8.0 when cold and 8.2 when hot for the powdered sample liquid extract. The results of the chemomicroscopic study revealed the presence of lignin, mucilage, calcium oxalate crystals, oil, calcium carbonate, but starch was absent. Results for the ethanol-soluble extractive value was 7 ± 0.00%    , water-soluble extractive value was 14 ± 0.00%   and methanol-soluble extractive value was 3 ± 0.00%  for the powdered samples. Results for the moisture content was 10.3 ± 0.00% , total ash values was 6.3± 0.00% , acid-insoluble ash value was 1 ± 0.00% , water-soluble ash value was 3±0.00%  and sulfated ash values was 7.5 ± 0.00% . In conclusion, the above evaluation methods and parameters there in could be used to identify and authenticate both the fresh and powdered crude drug product of Buchholzia coriacea.