Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant activities of Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight et Arn (Leguminosae): Correlations between the Polyphenol Level and the Antioxidant Activity

Reine Raïssa Rolande Aworet Samseny, Line-Edwige Mengome, Sophie Aboughe Angone

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v11i330185

Aims: Free radicals are involved in many diseases. Antioxidants help control them. The overproduction of free radicals or reduction of natural antioxidants promotes the destruction of cells in our body, for example in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of our study is to evaluate the correlation between the level of polyphenol and antioxidant activity of Dichrostachys cinerea barks he work was carried out at the phytochemistry department of the Institute of Pharmacopoeia and Traditional Medicine (Gabon).

Methodology: Different extracts of Dichrostachys cinerea barks were obtained with polarity solvent (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, methanol and water).  The antioxidant activity is evaluating using respectively FRAP method (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power), antiradical activity by the method of inhibition of DPPH radical (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), cations ABTS radical (2.2'-azinobis-[3-acid-6-sulfonic ethylenzothiazoline]).

Results: Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extract have the higher value for polyphenolic compounds, respectively 52,27±0,66 mg EAG / g and 49,72±0,55 mg EAG / g. Aqueous extract have the lower value 20,67±1,05 mg EAG / g. The different fractions of Dichrostachys cinerea have antioxidant effect, and this effect is in correlation with its constituents: polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids. Results were compared to standard antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and quercetin.

Conclusion: This study confirms higher is the level of polyphenols greater is the antioxidant power.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of the Larvicidal Properties of Methanol Extracts and Fractions of Ocimum gratissimum L. and Ocimum basilicum L. Leaves (Lamiaceae) on the Fourth Instar Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus L. and Control of Filariasis

Romanus A. Umoh, Imoh I. Johnny, Anwanabasi E. Udoh, Akwaowoh A. Elijah, Omodot T. Umoh, Lovina E. Essiet

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 24-31
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v11i330187

Background: Botanical insecticides may serve as suitable alternatives to synthetic insecticides because they contain bioactive chemicals. They are relatively safe, biodegradable and readily available in many areas of the world.

Objective: The aim of this study is to comparatively evaluate the larvicidal properties of methanol extracts and fractions of Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum leaves on fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of filariasis.

Methods: The plants were identified, collected, air-dried and pulverized. The powdered leaves were macerated in 100% redistilled methanol for 72 hours, filtered and concentrated to thick extracts. After the preliminary work was done as activity-guided process, the crude extracts were partitioned into different solvents and again concentrated to thick fractions. The percentage yields were calculated and recorded. The larvae were collected from a location at Ewet Housing Estate, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. Toxicity was evaluated by exposing fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus to a concentration range of 0.0625 to 1.000mg/mL of the methanol crude extracts and fractions. The larval mortalities were recorded after 24 hours of exposure and LC50 values were determined using the non-linear regression analysis of a statistical package graph pad prism®.

Results: The results of percentage mortalities of methanol crude extracts ranged from 2.5±0.50 to 67.50±1.05% for O. gratissimum and 2.5±0.50 to 100±0.00% for O. basilicum with their LC50 of 0.79mg/mL and 0.18mg/mL respectively.  The solvent partitioned fractions also showed that the percentage mortalities of n-hexane and chloroform of O. gratissimum ranged from 5±1.00% to 100±0.00% and 17.5±1.5% to 97.5±0.5% with their LC50 of 0.29mg/mL and 0.32 mg/mL respectively, while those of O. basilicum ranged from 0.25±0.5% to 100±0.00% for n-hexane and 7.5±0.5% to 92.5±1.5% for chloroform fractions with their LC50 of 0.42mg/mL and 0.39 mg/mL compared to that of Nicotine (positive control) with LC50 of 0.01mg/mL with a percentage mortality range of 10±1.00 to 100±0.00%. 

Conclusion: O. basilicum leaf methanol crude extract was more than four times active than that of O. gratissimum, but n-hexane and chloroform solvent partitioned fractions of O. gratissimum were more active than those of O. basilicum considering their percentage mortalities and LC50.                   Hence, both methanol crude extracts of O. basilicum and n-hexane fraction of O. gratissimum     have greater potentials as larvicides which can also be used in the control of C. quinquefasciatus larvae.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytopharmacognostic Evaluation of the Leaves OF Gnetum africanum Welw (Gnetaceae)

Romanus A. Umoh, Uwemedimo F. Umoh, Imoh I. Johnny, Omodot T. Umoh, Victor U. Anah, Anwanabasi E. Udoh, Akwaowoh A. Elijah, Moses A. Adefabi, Etido A. Matthew

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 32-41
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v11i330188

Background: Gnetum africanum Welw (Gnetaceae) also called African salad and Afang in Ibibio language is an evergreen, perennial, shade-tolerant vine with woody stems which can climb up to 12m or more from a tuberous root-stock. It has culinary and medicinal importance.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacognostic parameters of Gnetum africanum.

Methods: The leaves were identified, collected, air-dried, pulverized, weighed and subjected to the evaluation of its microscopy, micromeritics, chemomicroscopy, fluorescence, soluble extractive values, moisture content and ash values using standard procedures.

Results: The results obtained from microscopy revealed that the leaf has brachyparacytic, stomata, 3-5 armed and stellate trichromes on the abaxial surface. The epidermal cell wall pattern was undulate on the abaxial surface and sinuous on the adaxial surface. Stomatal number was found to be 3.1 ± 0.25 on the abaxial surface and Stomatal index was found to be 16.8% on the abaxial surface. The micromeritics analysis of the leaf powder revealed passable flow with the angle of repose of 420. The result of chemomicroscopy of the leaf revealed the presence of mucilage, lignin, calcium oxalate crystals, starch and oil. For water-soluble extractive value, the result was 13.25%w/w, methanol-soluble extractive value 4.25%w/w, ethanol-soluble extractive value 4%w/w, moisture content 10.5%w/w, total ash value was 5%w/w, acid-insoluble ash value 1%w/w, water-soluble ash value 2%w/w and sulfated- ash value 6% w/w.

Conclusion: The results obtained from the pharmacognostic study provides information for the identity, quality and purity of Gnetum africanum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Turmeric Powder Gavage Improves Lipid Profile of Albino Rats

A. V. Iwueke, W. C. Madu, E. C. Chukwu

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 42-46
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v11i330189

Dyslipidemia is one of the key risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to investigate the effect of powdered Curcuma longa (turmeric) tubers on lipid profile of albino rats. Twenty-four (24) male albino rats were randomly divided into four groups (A-D), receiving once daily administration of distilled water, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of the powder respectively. The body weights of the animals were measured weekly, while lipid profile was determined after three weeks. The result showed that daily oral administration of graded doses of the C. longa powder for three weeks resulted in a non-significant increase in the body weights of the animals. Daily oral turmeric powder (200 mg/kg) treatment significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lowered the serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, while those that received 100 mg/kg significantly increased HDL-Cholesterol and reduced LDL-Cholesterol. Turmeric powder lowered total cholesterol, triglyceride and increasing HDL cholesterol in albino rats at the indicated doses and duration.

Open Access Review Article

Application of Platelet Rich Fibrin, Platelet Rich Plasma, Plasma Rich Growth Factors in Different Fields of Dentistry: An Overview

Geetanjali Singh, Bhawna Kumari, Harangad Singh Grover, Akriti Mahajan, Farhat Jabeen, Ajay Kumar

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 12-23
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v11i330186

A huge number of studies have demonstrated that platelet-rich preparations applied to surgical sites, injuries, or wounds are effective way to promote soft tissue healing and bone growth. The potential use of  platelet rich preparations like Platelet - rich plasma and Platelet - rich fibrin are new boon to dentistry termed under the general acronyms PRP (Platelet-Rich Plasma) or PRF (Platelet-Rich Fibrin), is an important current transversal field of research across many fundamental and clinical disciplines.The third important is PRGF.  Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (or PRGF) is a type of plasma enriched of proteins and circulating growth factors able to aid the bone and soft tissue regeneration. PRGF includes plasma proteins and coagulative factors and is then more valuable compared to PRP. There are many scientific literature which cover one or other concise aspect of platelet rich preparation. This review aims at covering all basic definitions, key element, history, preparation, differences between PRF and PRP and applications in a simplified manner.