Open Access Original Research Article

Attitudes and Practices of Pharmacists and Physicians towards Bush Medicine in Guyana

Ede Tyrell, Karishma Jeeboo, Jewel Edmonson- Carter, Troy Thomas, Rajini Kurup

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v11i430190

Aims: To examine the attitudes and practices of physicians and pharmacists towards bush medicine, and explore the factors influencing their attitudes. Also, to determine whether a video educational intervention impacted attitudes.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study of registered physicians and pharmacists.

Place and Duration of Study: A total of 274 persons participated: 134 pharmacists attending their first Continuing Pharmacy Education (CPE) of 2015 and 140 physicians attending their annual Medical Scientific Conference.

Methodology: A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was distributed and collected, a video intervention was shown, and a post-intervention questionnaire was administered. Data were analysed using latent class cluster analysis, and the best-fitting model was determined using mainly the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Logistic and multinomial regression and Fisher's exact test were also employed to investigate associations with demographic variables and the impact of the intervention.

Results: Most of the participants (56.4%) were 20-30 years old, and the majority (52%) had five years or less professional experience. Pharmacists displayed a more positive attitude to bush medicine than physicians. Most (99%) believed that patients should inform their physician/pharmacist about their bush medicine use, but only 53% routinely requested this information. More than half (52%) had personally used bush medicine, but only 38% had ever recommended its use. More than 90% believed that clinical trials should be conducted with bush medicine before it is used, and 88% were interested in further training. Ethnicity, years of professional experience and type of profession influenced attitudes and the intervention led to an improved outlook regarding bush medicine.

Conclusion: Overall, most participants had some misgivings about bush medicine but were willing to learn more and were interested in clinical trials. Evidence-based clinical research and training at the tertiary level or future continuing education sessions should be implemented using the content in the video as a template.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Protective and Therapeutic Potentials of Aqueous Extract of Corn Silk on Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Albino Rats

Ogechi Edna Nwachuku, Ojoye Ngoye Briggs, Dickson Okike, Ngozi Brisibie, Ibioku Elekima

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 13-23
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v11i430191

Aim: To evaluate the protective and therapeutic potentials of corn silk extract on gentamicin (CN)-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats.

Study Design: The rats were randomly selected and grouped as follows: Group 1 (NC): Were given only food and water. They served as negative control. Group 2 (PC): Were treated with 80 mg/kg/day of CN over a period of 7 days. They served as the positive control. Protective Treatment: Group 3a (CN+CSP 200 mg/kg): Concurrently treated with 200 mg/kg corn silk extract and 80 mg/kg/day of CN for 7 days. 200 mg/kg corn silk extract continued for 30 days. Group 3b (CN+CSP 400 mg/kg): Concurrently treated with 400 mg/kg corn silk extract and 80 mg/kg of CN for seven days. 400 mg/kg corn silk extract continued for 30 days.  Therapeutic treatment: Group 4a (CN+CST 200 mg/kg): Induction of nephrotoxicity with 80 mg/kg/day of CN for seven days before the administration of 200 mg/kg of corn silk extract for 30 days. Group 4b (CN+CST 400 mg/kg): Induction of nephrotoxicity with 80 mg/kg/day of CN for 7 days before the administration of 400 mg/kg of corn silk extract for 30 days.

Methodology: At the end of the treatment, the animals were allowed to fast for 18 hours and later anaesthetized using chloroform. Whole blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture and put into lithium heparin bottles. The samples were then spun at 3500 rpm for 5 minutes to obtain plasma. Kidney specimens harvested were fixed in 10% formol saline. Sections were prepared using histological techniques and stained using Haematoxylin and Eosin stain. Urea was analysed using Berthelot’s enzymatic colorimetric method, creatinine using Jaffe’s enzyme-kinetic method while the estimation of Na+, K+, and Cl- were performed using Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) analyzer.

Results: Significantly lower (p<0.05) values of creatinine and urea were seen in protective and therapeutic treatment groups when compared against positive control. Potassium indicated significantly lower values especially in the therapeutic groups when compared against negative control while chloride indicated significantly higher values in 400 mg/kg rats compared with positive control at p<0.05. Histology of the protective treatment groups showed slightly distorted glomerular space, vacuolations, and dilated proximal and distal tubules. The positive control and the therapeutic treatment groups indicated severely damaged glomerulus, glomerular space, proximal and distal tubules as well as loss of parenchymal materials and presence of kupffer cell infiltration were seen but less severe in the therapeutic group compared to the positive control.

Conclusion: The results obtained suggest protective and therapeutic potentials of corn silk extract on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. However, the therapeutic efficacy was progressively gradual and not be fast-effective as documented in most traditional or herbal literatures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract Extends Lifespan and Ameliorate HAART Drug-Induced Locomotor, Reproductive, and Antioxidant Deficits in Drosophila melanogaster

Walter Mdekera Iorjiim, Simeon Omale, Great David Bagu, Steven Samuel Gyang, Emmanuel Taiwo Alemika

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 33-46
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v11i430194

Aim: To evaluate the longevity and ameliorative activities of Moringa oleifera leaf (MOL) extract against some HAART drug-induced toxicities in Drosophila melanogaster.

Materials and Methods: The research was conducted at the Drosophila laboratory, Africa Centre of Excellence in phytomedicine Research and Development (ACEPRD), University of Jos-Nigeria, between August 2019 - March 2020.  D. melanogaster (1-3 day) were first exposed for life to different concentrations of MOL (50 – 500 mg) or 25 mM Ascorbic acid or 1000 µL distilled water to determine longevity. Secondly, flies were fed on 46.56 mg of HAART drugs (Efavirenz-based or Dolutegravir-based) alone or supplemented with MOL 250 mg or 500 mg per 10 g fly food in five replicates for seven days. Afterward, longevity, fecundity, and negative geotaxis were evaluated. Also, activities of Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, as well as Malondialdehyde content as biomarkers of oxidative stress were evaluated using whole fly homogenate. Statistical significance was taken at P<0.05 or (P<0.006) (Bonferroni adjusted P-value for multiple curve comparisons. 

Results: The MOL extract significantly (P<0.001) increased fly longevity compared to control groups. Similarly, supplementation with 500 mg MOL extracts significantly (P<0.05) ameliorate HAART drug-induced deficits in climbing ability, fecundity, SOD, and CAT activities as well as MDA content compared to groups exposed to HAART drugs alone respectively.

Conclusion: The results suggest that   M. oleifera leaf extract extends lifespan and ameliorate HAART drug-induced toxicities via its antioxidant activities. This was supported by improved locomotor and reproductive decline, and restoration of the deficits in the biomarkers of oxidative stress (SOD, CAT, and MDA) in D. melanogaster.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and Phytochemical Screening of Leaf and Seed Extract of Ficus exasperata

O. O. Julius, V. O. Oluwasusi, M. F. Ibiyemi

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 47-55
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v11i430195

Ficus exasperata belongs to the family Moraceae, and is commonly called forest sand paper tree/plant, widely spread in all eco-regions of Nigeria. This plant possesses antimicrobial agents and pharmacological compounds which aid in its efficacy for treatment of ailments. Hence, this study investigated the antibacterial activities and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanolic extract of leaves and seeds of Ficus exasperata. Leaves and seeds of the plant sample were processed to obtain fractions of crude extracts which were used against bacterial isolates such as, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. Phytochemical screening of the samples was also done to detect the presence of alkaloid, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, tannin, terpenoids, sterol and phenols. Results obtained showed the susceptibility pattern against the bacterial isolates at concentrations ranging from 0.20 – 1.00 mg/mL. The ethanol extract of leaves of the plant sample showed high susceptibility pattern against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. coli and K. aerogenes. The study shows that crude extracts of leaves and seeds of the plant sample were effective against the test organisms. The phytochemicals constituents were also present except sterol which is lacking in the seed sample due to the solvent used such as ethanol but may be present if other solvent is used. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of F. exasperata leaves and seeds were as a result of presence of phytochemical constituents because they are fundamental biomedicals, which are considered biologically to be active compounds. This study provides an insight to the usefulness of extracts from F. exasperata leaves and seeds to be potential treatment against common clinical diseases.

Open Access Review Article

Traditional Herbal Medicines and their Fertility Potential: A Review

Ashwani Kumar, Nisha Gadhwal

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 24-32
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v11i430193

Rapid increase in population growth is causing strain on medical resources world  wide. Traditional folk medicines are region-specific, local resources based indigenous herb based, village based, and in many cases, community-specific. Different systems of medicine developed accordingly, which have been termed as Ayurvedic, Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Malaysian, Yunani and more recently Homoeopathic. Aim of the present review is to study and review role of traditional herbal medicines in regulation of fertility problems including impotency   and female gynaecological problems. The method used was results of our own studies, existing literature, traditional knowledge from gunis vaidyas etc. It has been found that   Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau & Fernandes (Liliaceae), Asparagus adscendens Roxb and Mucuna  pruriens L (DC) is being used in the indigenous systems of medicine as a galactogogue and aphrodisiac. It can be concluded that traditional medicines have an important role in improving fertility potential in humans.