Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Creatinine can be Reduced by Applying Homeopathic Medicines according to the Symptom Similarity: Case Study Analysis of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Nur-E-Alam Rasel, Md. Sofiqul Alam, Mohammad Akther-uz- Zahan, Md. Shahi Emran Hossain

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v12i130196

Background: Over the past few decades, chronic kidney disease (CKD) with high serum creatinine has turned into an intensive clinical and epidemiological research in Bangladesh as well as globally. Even though the transparency provided by the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines, there appears to be within the CKD with high serum creatinine research literature significant dissimilarity on how to define CKD and assess kidney function. In this situation homeopathic symptomatic treatment can play a vital role in CKD with high creatinine. Methods: The cases of four patients with CKD and high creatinine from our observations are discussed, those whom were benefited by homeopathic treatment. The more common remedies administered in the treatment of CKD with high creatinine include: Lycopodium clavatum, Apis mellifica, Apocynum cannabinum, Aurum muriticum, Cuprum metalicum Cantharis,  Sarsaparilla, Glonoine, Serum anguillae, Berbaris vulgaris,… etc. The patho-physiologies, diagnosis, review of CKD and serum creatinine are discussed. These case study analyses of CKD emphasize that a consideration of CKD symptoms with high serum creatinine, in addition to more constitutional symptoms, is important when homeopathically analyzing these cases.

Results: The positive effects of different homeopathic medicines were clearly reducing serum creatinine during the treatment of CKD patients without hemodialysis with cost effectiveness and most harmless way.

Conclusions: These case study analyses found that early proper diagnosis, most appropriate selection of homeopathic remedies and follow-up is important to cure the CKD with high serum creatinine and possible resulting renal failure can be dreadful.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Evaluation of Plant Parts of Rauwolfia Vomitoria

Stephen Chijioke Emencheta, Bessie Ifeoma Enweani, Angus Nnamdi Oli, Emmanuel Chinedum Ibezim, Ijeoma Eucharia Olaedo Imanyikwa

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v12i130197

Aims: This study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activities of fractions of Rauwolfia vomitoria against some isolates including; Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Microsporon canis, and Trichophyton rubrum.

Methodology: Primary extraction was done on the dried and pulverized plant samples (leaves, barks, and root) using methanol, after which the crude extracts was fractionated using butanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane respectively. The samples were duly labelled according to the plant parts and solvents used. Agar diffusion and dilution methods on Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) where used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations (MBC/MFC) respectively. The percentage inhibition diameter growth (PIDG) of the extracts and fractions were also determined.

Results: From the results, eleven (11) samples showed inhibitory activity on one or more of the test isolates. Extended spectrum activity was observed with five (5) of the samples, including; RVL ethyl acetate, RVL n-hexane, RVB crude, RVR crude, and RVR ethyl acetate against S. typhi, E. coli, and M. canis. Antifungal activity was observed only against M. canis. The ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves (RVLE) and crude methanol extract of the bark (RVBC) gave the least MIC both against M. canis at a concentration of 25 mg/ml, while the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves (RVLE) at 12.5 mg/ml also against M. canis gave the least MBC/MFC. Using the inhibition zone diameters (IZD), the obtained PIDG showed apparently that the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves (RVL ethyl acetate) was the most active against S. typhi (28.57%) and E. coli (20%).

Conclusion: The study lends support to the traditional use of the plant especially in treating gastro intestinal tract and skin infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combinatorial Evaluation of Antiviral Activity of some Nigerian Medicinal Plants on SARS-CoV-2Combinatorial Evaluation of Antiviral Activity of some Nigerian Medicinal Plants on SARS-CoV-2

Kakjing D. Falang, Catherine O. Poyi, Ukpe Ajima, Bukata B. Bukar, Kennedy I. Amagon, James G. Damen, Yusuf Agabi, Richard J. Kutshik, Ishaya Y. Longdet, Simji S. Gomerep, Ismaila Shittu, Stephen D. Davou, Jacob A. Kolawole, Noel N. Wannang

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 38-50
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v12i130199

The coronavirus disease COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) has presented unprecedented challenges to the healthcare systems in the world. There are no definite effective therapeutic agents or vaccines against the virus currently. However clinical management of the infection includes prevention, control measures, supportive care and repurposed drug therapy based on pathophysiology of the virus and manifestation of the disease condition thereby using antiviral agents such as remdesivir, lopinavir and favipiravir. Herbal preparations are being promoted for the management of Covid-19. Some selected Nigerian medicinal plants are hereby investigated by In-silico studies of the plant constituents. When compared with the listed therapeutic agents, the phytochemical constituents of the selected plants have better binding affinity to several Covid-19 viral target proteins. Also they were found to be safe for human use with LD50 of >2000 mg/Kg for the plant extracts. Some of the plants also contained phytochemicals that can be employed for the symptoms of covid-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Citrofortunella microcarpa (Calamansi) Peelings on Whole Blood Coagulation Using Blood Samples from Albino Mice

Ian Christopher N. Rocha, Shannon Jean R. Roque, Lerrice G. Tanyag, Katherine A. Reyes, Ma. Ann Miyel M. Sigui

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 51-56
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v12i130200

Citrofortunella microcarpa, locally known as calamansi in the Philippines, is an intergeneric hybrid between Citrus reticulata and Fortunella japonica. This fruit is widely cultivated in the Philippines for its fruit juice as an abundant source of vitamin C and as a condiment in many local foods in the country. Sadly, only the pulp is needed for squeezing while the peels are thrown after extracting the juice. Previous studies revealed that the peels of Citrus, as member of the Rutaceae family, can synthesize both coumarins and furanocoumarins wherein their derivates are used as oral anticoagulants which can inhibit vitamin K from functioning as a cofactor in the hepatic synthesis of the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X. In this study, the extract of calamansi peelings were proven to have an anticoagulant property on blood samples from albino mice. This study will pave the way for scientists to allot time in studying calamansi peelings for it may be another source of medicine to help patients who are prone to have stroke, myocardial infarction, and other blood clotting diseases.

Open Access Review Article

Pharmacovigilance of Natural Herbal Medicines Research for Efficacy, Safety and Quality Assurance of Phytomedicine Products

Estella Tembe Fokunang, Dobgima John Fonmboh, Rose Ngono Mballa, Andrew Banin Nyuyki, Lovet Benyella Fokunang, Nubia Kaba, Thérèse Bwemba Abong, Ralf Duerr, Ejoh Richard, Marie-Thérèse Abena Ondoua, Charles Ntungwen Fokunang

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 21-37
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v12i130198

Improved traditional medicine/phytomedicine formulations have gained a global acceptability and popularity as therapeutic agents for many diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. Herbal products are generally considered as safe, environmentally friendly and increasingly consumed by the community without prescription. There is a lack of systematic data on traditional medicine-associated adverse effects due to complex issues such as products with multiple ingredients, poor standardization, lack of clinical trials, variation in manufacturing processes, contamination, adulteration and misidentification of herbs. The aim of pharmacovigilance is to detect, assess, understand, and prevent the adverse effects or any other possible drug-related problems, related to herbal, traditional and complementary medicines. Pharmacovigilance for herbal medicines is in its infancy, and monitoring the safety of natural products presents unique challenges, and as such, preparations are available from a wide range of sources where limited qualified healthcare professionals are available. The ethico-legal issues and regulatory approval mechanism of herbal medicine vary from country to country. This paper also elucidates the level of challenges associated with herbal pharmacovigilance geared towards improving safety monitoring for herbal medicines in the future.