Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicological Effect of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn

J. K. Kone, A. K. Onifade

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v12i330207

Euphorbia heterophylla has been reported to possess enormous medicinal benefits hence there is a need for holistic research on its toxicological effects. Four different solvents (cold and hot water, chloroform and 80% methanol) were used to extract the aerial parts of Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. Experimental albino rats were obtained from Federal University of Technology Akure’s Microbiology Department Animal House. Toxicological analysis of Euphorbia heterophylla extracts was carried out on the experimental albino rats. The animals were grouped into thirteen with three rats in a group different concentrations of the extracts were administered orally to different groups of the rats for a period of two weeks (14 days). Sterile distilled water was administered to the negative control group. During the 14 days of extracts administration, the animals were observed for clinical manifestations like salivation, nervousness, imitability, itching of the nose and diarrhoea. After the expiration of the two weeks, the animals were sacrificed and vital organs like heart, liver, kidney and intestine were harvested and examined for any degenerative changes and lesions. Blood samples were collected before and after the administration of the extracts to check for blood parameters (Packed Cell Volume (PCV), white blood cell count (total and differential), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and haemoglobin (Hb) estimation. The toxicological results of the extracts showed various degrees of abnormalities detected in the histopathological sections of the intestine, kidney and the heart. It was found that all the extracts at different concentrations burnt the intestinal walls of all the animals tested. There were significant reductions in the total white blood cells (WBC) and neutrophil counts while there was a significant increase in the lymphocytes count after the administration of the extracts. The findings of this study revealed that Euphorbia heterophylla had toxicological effects on the albino rats organs but increases there lymphocytes count, boosting their immune system, however advance researches to eliminate the toxic phytochemicals from the extract is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro and In vivo Anticonvulsant Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Moringa stenopetala in Mice Models

Samson Sahile Salile, Teferra Abula

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 16-23
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v12i330208

Background: Epilepsy is a debilitating neurological disorder that directly affects approximately 65 million people worldwide. In the search of safe and effective antiepileptics traditional treatment practices are one area of research to obtain novel molecules. Moringa stenopetala root is claimed to be used for epilepsy treatment in Konso area, Southern Ethiopia. But there was no scientific research evidence for the claimed use of the plant.

Objective: This study was conducted to explore the anticonvulsant activity of hydro-alcoholic (80% methanol) extract of root of Moringa stenopetala.

Methods: The dry residues of the plant extract was used for the test. In vitro 0Mg2+ mice model at dose 0.7 mg/kg of extract, diazepam(3μM) and untreated brain slice groups were used to compare the presence of seizure like event (SLE). In vivo pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) model with 85 mg/kg subcutaneously was used to compare the seizure on set time with two extract doses and diazepam 5 mg/kg. The data was presented with mean± standard error. In maximum electric shock (MES) model 54 mA was passed for 0.2 second transauricularly in mice. The mean time of hind limb extension was recorded for doses 400 mg/kg and 800mg/kg of the extract and 10 mg/kg phenytoin. The means were compared for statistical significance using one way ANOVA post hoc LSD whereas proportions were compared using Fishers exact test with P-value < .05.

Results: M. stenopetala extract has shown statistically significant anticonvulsant activity in vitro compared to control (P<.05). A positive control, the known anticonvulsant diazepam (3μM), showed significant anticonvulsant activity (P<.05). In vivo MES model showed statistically significant anti-seizure activity at both doses (P<.05). But the crude extract failed to show statistically significant activity at all doses of PTZ model (P>.05).

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that crude extract of Moringa stenopetala exhibited anti-convulsant effect both in vitro and in vivo MES models.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception and Acceptance of Herbal Medicines among Residents of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Kemzi N. Elechi-Amadi, Ojoye N. Briggs, Felix E. Konne, Lynda K. Giami, Benjamin C. Ajufo

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 24-34
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v12i330209

Background: The use of herbal medicines and medicinal plants available in a locality in the treatment and control of human diseases, promotion of health and management of health conditions will continue to play a significant role in the healthcare system of the people, especially in developing countries. This cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the perception and knowledge of usage of herbal medicines among the residents of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Methodology: Multi-stage sampling technique was used for this study.

Results: The results indicated that out of the 273 questionnaires returned, 118 (44.9%) of the respondents were male while 144 (55.1%) were female. The average age of the respondents was 36±10 years. The prevalence of usage of herbal medicine from this study was 80.9%. The major source of information about herbal medicines was home (family and friends).The results also indicate that 180 (68.6%) of the respondents did not experience unpleasant effects such as headaches, vomiting, nausea and diarrhea, with the use of herbal medicines. Similarly, on the reasons for using herbal medicine, 134 (51.1%) of the respondents indicated that they used herbal medicines because they are effective, 66 (25.3%) said herbal medicines are always available mostly as locally sourced herbs, while 46 (17.7%) said herbal medicines are not costly. On the perception of herbal medicines, 206 (78.6%) indicated that herbal medicines are efficacious, 197 (75.3%) supported the integration of herbal medicines into the conventional health system, 243 (92.6%) supported the establishment of a Board to regulate the practice of herbal medicine in order to prevent indiscriminate use of herbal medicines while 234 (89.9%) of the respondents supported the establishment of a formal training institution for herbal medicine practitioners.

Conclusion: It is concluded that herbal medicines have wide acceptability and perception among the study population. It is recommended that herbal medical practice be properly regulated and integrated into the conventional health system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Facing COVID-19 Via Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism of Action: Molecular Docking and Pharmacokinetic Studies of Six Anti-Inflammatory Compounds Derived from Passiflora edulis

Aristote Matondo, Jason T. Kilembe, Domaine T. Mwanangombo, Beaudrique M. Nsimba, Dani T. Mawete, Benjamin Z. Gbolo, Gedeon N. Bongo, D. O. Opota, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Dorothée D. Tshilanda, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, Virima Mudogo, Pius T. Mpiana

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 35-51
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v12i330211

Aim: In the most severe case of the COVID-19, there is an excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines, being the main cause of mortality and morbidity. The present study aims at assessing the potential inhibitor effect of six phytochemicals with anti-inflammatory activity derived from Passiflora edulis, against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease.

Materials and Methods: Virtual screening by molecular docking (Autodock tool) was used to obtain the binding energies of ligand-protein complexes formed between each of the six ligands and the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. The six ligands were then submitted to ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) and toxicity analyses to understand their pharmacokinetic behavior, using SwissADME, preADMET and pkCSM webservers.

Results: Four high-docking score compounds were identified (both flavonoids) as hits, with the trend: ligand 4 (quercetin, -8.2 kcal/mol ) > ligand 1 (chrysin, -8.0 kcal/mol) > ligand 2 (kaempferol, -7.9 kcal/mol) > ligand 3 (luteolin, -7.7 kcal/mol)> ligand 5 (harmol, -6.7 kcal/mol) > ligand 6 (harmine, -6.4 kcal/mol). The pharmacokinetic behavior of the six ligands revealed that they can be easily absorbed and have good permeability and bioavailability. The toxicity predictions of the six compounds from P. edulis which is an editable fruit confirm that they are safe.

Conclusion: Several approaches are currently being used to tackle the COVID-19. Given the cytokine storm in the most severe case of the COVID-19, we adopted the strategy of combatting the disease by compounds that exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. The assessment of the efficiency of six phytochemicals from P. edulis against the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and their pharmacokinetic profile revealed their potential inhibitor effect against the COVID-19 protein.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Compliance with Preventive Measures of Cardiovascular Diseases among Health Workers in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt

Nwafor Titilola Deborah, Nwafor Chibuike Eze, Elendu Ifeanyi Christian, Charles Abel Fortune

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 52-61
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2020/v12i330212

Introduction: This analytic descriptive study investigated knowledge and compliance with prevention measures of cardiovascular diseases among health workers in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt.

Methodology: A sample of 608 health workers drawn from a population of 2500 health workers in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital using simple random sampling technique participated in the study. Eleven research questions were answered and six hypotheses tested in the study. The instrument for data collection is Cardiovascular Disease Questionnaire. It was vetted by the supervisor and three other experts in health education. The reliability of the instrument established through pilot testing using Cronbach alpha method ranged rom 0.67 to 0.89.

Results: The results of the study revealed that; Health workers in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital have knowledge of cardiovascular diseases, their signs and symptoms, have knowledge of general risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease, have knowledge of smoking, diet, stress and physical inactivity as risk factors for developing cardiovascular diseases. There is no compliance with cardiovascular disease prevention measures among health workers in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Gender and age have no influence on compliance with cardiovascular disease prevention measures while professional qualification influences compliance with cardiovascular disease prevention measures.

Conclusion: It was therefore recommended among others that health workers in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital should check on regular basis their blood pressure, sugar and lipid level. They should show preference to healthy diets including fruits and vegetables and engage in periodic physical exercise.