Open Access Original Research Article

The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Caesarean Section at Noakhali Sadar, Bangladesh

Syeda Saima Alam, Tanjina Rahman, Susmita Ghosh, Tanzina Akhter, Dilruba Jahan Rume, Mohammad Omar Faruk, Shakil Ahmed, Rakibul Islam Munna

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v13i230219

Background: The present Caesarean section (C-Section) delivery rate is 33% in Bangladesh which is almost double what is recommended by the World Health Organization for each country. C-section delivery is related to surgical complications, thus increase the rate of hospitalization and reduce women’s quality of life. However, data on C-section delivery rates in different areas in this country are limited. Keeping this in mind, the objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with C-section deliveries in Noakhali district, Bangladesh.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 400 women of child-bearing age from Noakhali district, Bangladesh, who had either cesarean (215) or normal vaginal delivery (185) in the last two years using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 26.0 and frequency tabulation, binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to achieve the study objective.

Results: The prevalence of C-Section in the study area was 53.75%, which was higher than the current Bangladeshi C-section prevalence rate. The most important predictors of C-section delivery among the study area were the mother’s nutritional status, education of the respondent and her husband, family income, normal representation of the fetus, prolong labor pain during delivery, delivery in a private facility, term delivery, and baby’s birth weight. The adjusted odds of undergoing C-section was higher among respondents who were overweight (AOR=6.53; CI=3.007 to 14.18), had LBW baby (AOR= 4.641; CI=2.066 to 10.42), family income more than or equal 20,000 (AOR =3.038; CI=1.056 to 8.743),prolong labor pain during delivery (AOR = 6.027; CI=2.829 to 12.84), performed delivery in private facility (AOR= 27.88; CI=11.55 to 67.33) and mal-presentation of the fetus (AOR = 6.867; CI=2.519 to 18.72).

Conclusions: The health care system in Noakhali and other districts in Bangladesh urgently needs policy guidelines to monitor C-Section delivery indications to avoid high rates of unnecessary C-Section.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Vitamin Contents, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Different Leaf Extracts of Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion)

I. E. Daniel, K. N. Mathew, P. L. John

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 13-26
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v13i230220

Methanol and ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) were evaluated for phytochemical compounds, vitamins, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Phytochemical compounds and vitamins were determined using standard procedures while antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) Assay.  Antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic bacteria and fungi were screened using disc diffusion method. The results indicated that the bioactive compounds (total phenol, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and alkaloids) determined quantitatively were present in appreciable concentration in both extracts. The result also showed that both extracts contain a variety of vitamins (A, B complex, C and E), with vitamins C and A having the highest concentration while the B-vitamins (B1, B2 and B3) and vitamin E were present in moderate concentrations. Both extracts showed significant scavenging and reducing ability comparable to the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner, with methanol exhibiting the highest scavenging and reducing capacity. The antimicrobial activity of both extracts showed appreciable broad spectrum activity against the pathogenic bacteria and fungi strains tested at various concentrations. Methanol extract was found to be most effective compared to ethyl acetate extract. These results indicated that the leaf extracts of dandelion possess antioxidant and antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria possibly due to the presence of bioactive compounds and other nutrients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antidiabetic Property of a Fraction of the Methanol Extract of the Seeds of Abrus precatorius in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

Ebele Lauretta Iloanya, Okwesili Fred Chiletugo Nwodo, Obiajulu Christian Ezeigwe, Ogochukwu Rita Ngwu, Valentine Osita Godwin Nwobodo, Erhunmwense Ann Obayuwana

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 27-38
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v13i230221

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects of insulin secretion and/or increased cellular resistance to insulin. Abrusprecatoriushas been used for the treatment of various ailments including diabetes mellitus. This study is aimed at evaluating the possible anti-diabetic effect of the methanol fraction 2 (F2) of the seeds of Abrusprecatoriusin alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats.

Methods: The methanol extract of the seeds of A. precatorius Linn Fabaceae was fractionated by Sephadex G15. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of 150 mg/kg bodyweight of alloxan. Acute toxicity (LD50) study was done using Lorke’s method. The antidiabetic activities of Fraction 2 (F2) and the biochemical parameters were investigated using standard diagnostic methods.

Results: The value of the LD50 is 529.2 mg/kg bw. Oral doses (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg bw.) of the extract caused a dose-dependent significant (p<0.05) reductions in blood glucose concentrations compared with diabetic untreated controls. There were significant decreases (p<0.05) in the total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels of rats in the treatment groups compared with the diabetic untreated group. The groups that were treated with glibenclamide, 5 mg/kg of the fraction, 20mg/kg of the fraction and the group that was pre-treated with 10mg/kg of the fraction before the induction of diabetes showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the concentration of low-density lipoprotein and significant increase (p<0.05) in high-density lipoprotein concentrations compared with the diabetic untreated group. The protein level increased non-significantly (p>0.05) in all the test groups compared with the diabetic untreated control group except the pre-treated group which increased significantly (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The results obtained from this study revealed that the methanol fraction of A. precatorius has antidiabetic property which can be as a result of the important phytochemicals found in the F2 fraction. Fraction 2 (F2) however showed improvement in lipid profile.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Bioactive Compounds and Antimicrobial Capabilities of Purified Nymphaea lotus Linn. (Nymphaeaceae) Extract to Multidrug Resistant Enteric Bacteria

O. J. Adenola, S. T. Adeleke

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 39-53
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v13i230222

The increase in multidrug resistance bacteria is a major issue of concern to researchers and healthcare experts. There is a continuous effort by the researchers to innovate new methods of prevention and treatment of infections caused by multidrug resistance bacteria. The occurrence of bioactive compounds and antimicrobial capabilities of Nymphaea lotus Linn. (Nymphaeaceae) extract against multidrug resistant enteric bacteria were studied by assessing in-vitro antibacterial properties of the extract using agar well diffusion technique. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) spectra revealed the presence of thirty (30) functional groups in purified ethanol extract of N. lotus root. Also, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry revealed the presence of different bioactive compounds (5-Nonanol, 2-Pentanone, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-, Azulene, Tetradecanoic acid, 2-Chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, Decanoic acid, ethyl ester, Phytol, 1-Hexadecyne, 2-octenoic acid, Methyl-n-hexadecyl ketone, Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, and n-Hexadecanoic acid) in purified ethanol extract of N. lotus root which can be used in production of antimicrobial drugs. Five fractions of purified ethanol extract of N. lotus root (fraction 3-7) had significant zone of inhibition. Fraction four had the highest zone of inhibition 23.67 ± 0.88 mm while fraction seven had the least zone of inhibition 2.67 ± 1.33 mm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multidisciplinary Work Approach to Phytomedicines Research and Development (R&D) in Nigeria – Experts’ Opinion

Obi Peter Adigwe, Henry Omoregie Egharevba, Olobayo Olufunso Kunle

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 54-66
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v13i230223

Modern drug development strategy involves the use of computer aided in silico studies, bioinformatics, and nanotechnology, to predict and simulate drug metabolism, safety and efficacy. The entire process requires molecular targeting, isolation, purification, synthesis through biotechnology or chemosynthesis, formulation, and determination of safety, efficacy and process efficiency. This has brought scientist from diverse background together toward a common curse of mutually beneficial innovative research approach. For phytomedicine research, this diversity requires professionals from different field such as the botany, chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, biotechnology, pharmacy and medicine.  Each of these fields also contains various specializations and specific research focus. This study looked at Expert opinion on multidisciplinary approach to innovative phytomedicine R&D in Nigeria. The analysis presented represents the opinion of Experts who responded to the study questionnaire. 53% of Experts believed that multidisciplinary collaboration is very productive while 39% believed it is productive. The level of phytomedicine R&D in Nigeria is believed to be poor by majority (56%) of respondents. The Experts believed that multidisciplinary R&D approach will lead to more reliable data, inclusiveness, process efficiency and better R&D outcome, results/products acceptability. Multidisciplinary R&D approach should be encouraged in Nigeria through adequate funding and policy framework.