Open Access Short Research Article

Lithotriptic Effects of Phyllanthus fraternus Methanol Leaf Extract on Ethylene Glycol-induced Kidney Calculi in Albino Rats

I. J. Omeh, M. S. Nadro

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 26-34
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v13i330227

This study was designed to evaluate the Lithotriptic potentials of Phyllantus fraternus methanol leaf extract on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in albino rats. Ethylene glycol (1% v/v) was administered in their drinking water for a period of 28 days. The Treatment was done with the extract at 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg body weights. Cystone® at 500 mg/kg body weight was also given for a period of 21 days to the standard control group. The serum parameters such as calcium, phosphates, magnesium and albumin were measured and evaluated. The results for the Lithotriptic activity, where the kidney homogenates were analyzed are described as thus, the phosphate concentrations when compared were significant (p<0.05) between the groups’ 600 mg/kg body weight (9.61 ± 1.17) and the normal control (5.67 ± 0.70). Significant differences (p<0.05) for phosphates were also observed between 600 mg/kg (9.61 ± 1.17) and 200 mg/kg body weights (12.06 ± 0.51); 400 mg/kg (7.64 ± 0.44) and 200 mg/kg body weights (12.06 ± 0.51) and the 200 mg/kg and standard control groups Cystone® (7.96 ± 0.56) respectively. Significant differences (p<0.05) were also observed for phosphates concentration, when the normal control (5.67 ± 0.70) was compared to the 400 mg/kg body weight (7.64 ± 0.44) and the standard control group Cystone® (7.96 ± 0.56). From this study, it can be deduced that, the presented data indicated that, the administration of Phyllanthus fraternus methanol leaf extract to rats with ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi, reduced and prevented the growth of kidney calculi, supporting the folklore claim regarding its Lithotriptic activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and In-vitro Antioxidants Potential of Aristolochia Bracteolata Root Extract

H. M. Goji, M. S. Nadro

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v13i330224

The study investigated the phytochemical and in-vitro antioxidants potential of Aristolochia bracteolata root extracts. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the plant extract and fractions were carried out. The total antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of extract and fractions were measured by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, FRAP and TBARS methods. Results obtained showed that total saponins (10.10 ± 0.05d) as well as antioxidant activity were found to be significantly (p< 0.05) higher in the methanol extract compared to the fractions. From the findings above, Aristolochia bracteolata root contains bioactive phytochemicals that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of various oxidative stresses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Curative Effects of Aqueous and Ethanol Stem Bark Extracts of Vitex doniana on Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats

Mohammed A. Sulaiman, Daniel Dahiru, Mahmoud S. Jada, Ahmed I. Hayatu

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 8-17
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v13i330225

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) constitute the number one cause of mortality at the global level, representing 30% of all global deaths. Therefore, finding ways to reduce deaths due to CVDs remain an important public health goal. Traditional healers in northern Nigeria use the stem bark of Vitex doniana to treat hypertensive patients. This study was aimed to investigate the cardiocurative potential of Vitex doniana on doxorubicin-induced Cardiotoxicity in rats.

Methods: Thirty five (35) adult Albino rats weighing 175 ± 25 g were used, of which 30 were induced with cardiotoxicity by intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin (10 mg/kg) for three consecutive days. Rats were treated by oral administration of Silymarin (100 mg/kg) and Vitex doniana aqueous or ethanol extract (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days and thereafter were sacrificed on the 15th day. Blood, plasma and serum were analyzed for lipid profile and serum markers for cardiotoxicity.

Results: Phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, phenols, saponins, terpenoids and glycosides. Oral treatment with Vitex doniana extracts significantly (p<0.05) lowered the elevated levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL but significantly (p<0.05) increased the level of HDL (18.61 ± 0.55 mg/dl to 57.98 ± 0.78 mg/dl). The extracts also significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of serum marker enzymes for cardiotoxicity ALT, AST, CK – mb and LDH.

Conclusion: The prophylactic cardiocurative use of Vitex doniana stem bark has been confirmed in this study as the extracts exhibited hypolipidemic and cardiocurative effects in dose dependent manner in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity rat model.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity Studies on Aqueous Stem Bark of Khaya senegalensis Extract of Kidneys and Its Biochemical Parameters in Wistar Rats

U. Abubakar, J. O. Adisa, U. Mohammed, R. I. Tsamiya, M. O. Mohammed, A. T. Muhammad, I. Mohammed, A. Umar, S. M. Sani, S. Umar, A. B. Imam, H. Kabir, F. A. Dogondaji, B. A. Bello, S. Y. Ma Aruf, S. A. Fasogbon, D. Isah, H. Abdullahi

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 18-25
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v13i330226

Introduction: Khaya senegalensis is a genus of seven species of trees in the mahogany family Meliaceae, native to tropical Africa and Madagascar. Mahogany  in  English, Aganwo  in  Yoruba,  Madachi  in  Hausa  and  Ono  in  Igbo. All species become big trees 30–35m tall, rarely 45m, with a trunk over 1 m trunk diameter, often buttressed at the base. The leaves are pinnate, with 4-6 pairs of leaflets, the terminal leaflet absent; each leaflet is 10–15 cm long abruptly rounded toward the apex but often with an acuminate tip.

Aim: The  aim of  the study  was  to determine  the Toxic  effect of prolonged oral administration  of  the  aqueous stem bark of  Khaya senegalensis extract  on the histology of  Kidneys and its biochemical parameters in wistar rats.

Methods: This work is an experimental research. A total of 20 wistar rats were randomly divided in to 5 groups each of which consist of 4 rats. Group 1 received distilled water to serve as control while group 2, 3, 4, and 5 received 500 mg/kg bw, 1000 mg/kg bw 2000 mg/kg bw  and 4000 mg/kg bw of the aqueous extract respectively for 60 days after which they were sacrificed, processed in Automatic Tissue Processor machine, Sectioned and stained with H &E.

Results: There was statistical significant increase in urea and potassium in all the test groups but is not dose dependent. The creatinine was significantly increased in groups 2, 4 and 5. While other parameters such as sodium, chloride and bicarbonate no significant difference when compared to the control group. The kidney sections showed normal structure in group 1 when compared with the test groups. However, there was significant infiltration of inflammatory cell across all the groups which were suggestive of kidney damage or injury. Similarly phenomenon was noticed in group 5 with additional congestion in the glomerulus and more polymorphs seen.

Conclusion: The LD50 was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg bw, therefore, 400 mg/kgbw was used as higher dose in the experimental wistar rats. There were statistical significant increases in some parameters groups while some groups not significant. The kidney section showed significant infiltration of polymorphs across all the groups more marked in group 5 with distension and damaging of the glomerulus indicating renal injury.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plants Used in Gynecology by the Malinke of South-eastern Senegal (Kédougou region)

Gueye Mathieu, Diop Seydina, Mingou Paterne Arnaud Bernard, Samb Papa Ibra

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 35-48
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v13i330228

Background: The collection and promotion of traditional knowledge is an international issue today. Thus, in this study we were interested in the local knowledge held by the Malinke of south-eastern Senegal on the plants used in gynecology. Methodology: The open semi-structured interviews technique, immersion, direct observations were used to collect local knowledge. The data are processed by descriptive statistical techniques for calculating ethnobotanical indices.

Results: The Malinke use 30 plants, belonging to 24 genera, distributed in 15 families, the most representative of which are the Fabaceae with 5 species, the Rubiaceae comprising 4 species, the Apocynaceae, the Combretaceae and the Moraceae with 3 species each. Their traditional mode of use compared to the practice of modern medicine allows the plants used to be classified into 7

Groups: oxytocics, antispasmodics, uterine antispasmodics, antiemetics, diuretics, muscle relaxants and galactogens. The most used species are Erythrina senegalensis, Ficus umbellata, Raphionacme splendens and Indigofera leptoclada. Bark is mostly used (38%), followed by the leaves and roots (22% each), while the most common method of preparation is a decoction (60%).

Conclusion: The study shows the importance of traditional medicine in rural areas of Kédougou region, south-eastern Senegal in the management of pregnancy, breastfeeding and maternal health. This is why a pharmacological characterization is underway to promote this local knowledge.