Open Access Original Research Article

Antimalarial Activity of Ethanol Extract of Mucuna pruriens Leaves on Nk65 Chloroquine Sensitive Strain of Plasmodium berghei

O. E. Ezim, O. V. Alagbe, F. M. Idih

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v13i430229

Mucuna pruriens leaves are used in some part of Nigeria for the treatment of malaria and anemia. With an estimated 3.3 billion people in 97 countries and territories at risk of being infected with malaria according to the WHO, researching into new chemotherapeutic agent against this disease is indeed necessary. This study was designed to evaluate the antimalarial effect of ethanol extract of Mucuna pruriens leaves on NK65 chloroquine sensitive strain of plasmodium berghei in mice. The bioactive compounds in the extract were identified using GC-MS. The experimental animals were divided into 6 groups: negative control, normal control, groups treated with chloroquine (10 mg/kg), Artemeter/Lumefantrine-ACT (20 mg/120 mg/kg), 500 mg/kg of M. pruriens, 1000 mg/kg of M. pruriens and 2000 mg/kg of M. pruriens respectively. Parasite inoculation was done by intraperitoneal injection of 0.2ml of the inoculum (1×107 infected erythrocytes). The GCMS result revealed the extract contains n-hexadeconoic acid, a compound known to possess antimalarial properties. The study revealed that the administrations M. pruriens leaves extracts at suitable doses reduced the parasite load and were able to maintain the PCV at a normal range with a stabilising effect on body weight.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro and In vivo Anticonvulsant Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Clutia abyssinica in Mice Model

Samson Sahile Salile, Teferra Abula

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 8-14
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v13i430230

Background: Epilepsy is a chronic disorder of the brain that affects people of all ages worldwide. In the search of safe and effective antiepileptics traditional treatment practices are one area of research to obtain novel molecules. Research is also needed to validate and standardize the traditional claim. Clutia abyssinica leaves were one of the medicinal plants claimed for use against epilepsy and evil eye and other diseases in different parts of Ethiopia. But there was no scientific research evidence for the claimed use of the plant. Therefore this work was designed to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Clutia abyssinica leaves.

Methods: The dry residue of the plant extract was used for the test. In vitro 0Mg2+ mice model at dose 0.7 mg/kg of extract, diazepam (3μM) and untreated brain slice groups were used to compare the presence of seizure like event (SLE). In vivo pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) model with 85 mg/kg subcutaneously was used to compare the seizure onset time with two extract doses and diazepam 5 mg/kg. The data was presented with mean± standard error. In maximum electric shock (MES) model 54 mA was passed for 0.2 second transauricularly in mice. The mean time of hind limb extension was recorded for doses 400 mg/kg and 800mg/kg of the extract and 10 mg/kg phenytoin. The means were compared for statistical significance using one way ANOVA post hoc LSD whereas proportions were compared using Fishers exact test with P-value < .05. 

Results: In vitro anticonvulsant tests C. abyssinica extract effect was not statistically significant compared to negative control (P>0.05).A positive control using the known anticonvulsant diazepam (3μM), showed significant anticonvulsant activity (P<0.05). The in vivo PTZ test showed no statistically significant effect in plant extract at all dose levels (P>0.05). In the in vivo MES test the extract of Clutia abyssinica both low and higher dose didn't show statistically significant effect (P>0.05) compared with the negative control. But the extract improved survival (p<0.05). The qualitative secondary metabolite test evidenced the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavanoids, phenols, saponins, sterols and terpeoids in Clutia abyssinica extract.

Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic crude extract result of the C. abyssinica as anticonvulsant is weak based on the models used in this study. For most of the local preparation are mixes of different plants it may have synergistic action with other plants. Or it may have action with other models of chronic epilepsy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Self-care Knowledge on Diabetes and Long-term Complications among Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Guyana

Cecil Boston, Rajini Kurup, Sibte Hadi, Emanuel Cummings, Adrian O'hara

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 15-25
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v13i430231

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the level of knowledge regarding self-care and awareness as well as long-term complications among type 2 diabetic patients in Guyana.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Georgetown Public Hospital Corporation and West Demerara Regional Hospital Guyana during the period September 2020 and December 2020.

Results: A total of 200 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who met the inclusion criteria were recruited via advertisement and telephone interviews. The data revealed about 66.5% of participants were deemed to have good knowledge with men accounting for the majority. Diabetic foot and hypertension were commonly seen among participants with complications. Significant association was noted with barrier level of patients with the level of education (p=0.001), ethnicity (0.006) and insurance plan (0.03). Adherence to self-care showed statistically significant association with patient’s level of education (p<0.0001), marital status (0.02), employment status (p<0.0001), insurance plan (0.01) and persons living with multiple persons in the household (p<0.0001). Statistically, significant association was also noted among patient’s self-health feeling with level of education (0.004), employment status (p<0.0001), insurance plan (0.01) and persons living with multiple persons in the household (p<0.0001). There was no statistical difference between the hospital clinics neither between the groups of participants.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the study highlighted gaps in the knowledge of the disease and patient care. Therefore, efforts should be made to enhance patient care by scheduling regular educational sessions and having services such as counselling available to patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biological Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial effect of Silver Nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using Aqueous Extract of Mango Pulp (Mangifera indica)

S. M. Yahya, Y. Abdulmumin, T. M. Abdulmumin, B. S. Sagagi, M. Murtala, A. K. Salau, S. A. Hassan

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 39-50
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v13i430233

The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles proceeds through the reduction of silver ions by the phytochemicals as an initial step in the formation of the nanoparticles. The phytochemicals also involved in the subsequent steps by stabilization and directing the shape and size of nanoparticles. In this study, a mango pulp extract was used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using “One pot biological method of synthesis” under ambient temperature. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized through visual development of color,UV-VIS spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared ray. The antimicrobial activities of the synthesized mango pulp Ag-NPs were determined using agar well diffusion method, MIC and MBC methods. The biosynthesized Ag-NPs showed a yellowish-brown color. Broad bell-shaped range bend was gotten from UV–Vis examination with different metabolites of MPAgNPs, this makes the plasmon band wide. Surface plasmon reverberation (SPR) of silver happens at 350 - 375 nm for the 7Nps at 2Mm concentration and 13Nps at 1Mm. The FTIR shows absorbance at 3335 m-1, 3324 m-1, 326 8 m-1, 3258 m-1, and 1640 m-1 were obtained for mango pulp extract-mediated (Ag-NPs), which indicated that proteins were the capping and stabilizing molecules in the biogenic synthesis of (Ag-NPs). Silver nanoparticles at various concentration of AgNO3 (2 mM, 1 mM, and 0.5 mM) have shown a profound effect by inhibiting the growth of E. Coli and S. Aureus with an inhibition zone of 12±0, 11.5±0.70, 11.33±1.5 and 12.5±2.12, 12±1.14, 12±4.24 using gentamycin as control (15.16±0.76. and 26.67±2.1) respectively, also MIC and MBC result of the MPAg-NPs extract have shown a –ve results confirming the potentiality of the extract against microbial forms. In conclusion, mango pulp silver nano particles demonstrated the feasibility of eco-friendly biogenic synthesis of Ag-NPs from a reliable, safe and available material (mango) that can be used for the green synthesis of Ag-NPs. And it also exhibits significant antimicrobial activity against gram –ve and gram +ve bacteria.

Open Access Review Article

Clinical and Prognostic Characteristics of "Disease-specific" Autoantibodies in Systemic Scleroderma

Aripova Nozima Abrarovna, Djurayeva Elnora Rustamovna, Nabiyeva Dildora Abdumalikovna, Ganiyeva Nafisa Abrarovna

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 26-38
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v13i430232

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease of autoimmune nature characterized by the triad of vascular injury, autoimmunity (cellular and humoral) and tissue fibrosis. Autoantibodies do not seem to be simply epiphenomena, but are involved in disease pathogenesis. It is believed that the SSc-specific autoantibodies are responsible both for amplifying immune response and targeting cell types that are relevant in the pathophysiology of SSc. In the current understanding of the pathogenesis of SSc, the leading role is assigned to the vascular lesion of the microvasculature arising against the background of immunity dysregulation and the intensification of fibrosis processes associated with the action of various growth factors and cytokines. In SSc, as in other systemic autoimmune diseases, chronic B-lymphocytic activation is observed, which results in a loss of tolerance to self antigens. Circulation of a wide range of autoantibodies (antibodies) is a characteristic feature of SSc. It is possible that autoantigens in SSc are released during ischemia-reperfusion tissue damage that occurs against the background of vasospastic vascular reactions characteristic of this disease. In the process of B-cell presentation of autoantigens through costimulatory surface molecules, activation of T-lymphocytes occurs, followed by clonal expansion of T-cell subpopulations, which are autoreactive towards endothelium and fibroblasts. It is believed that B cells play an important role in the initial mechanisms of fibrosis in SSc, and chronic activation of B cells is directly related to the development of sclerodermic fibrosis through the production of antibodies and fibrogenic cytokines. Despite many years of efforts, a complete concept explaining the role of antibodies in the pathogenesis of SSc has not yet been created. At the same time, a huge amount of information has been accumulated on the diagnostic and prognostic significance of circulating antibodies, the importance of which for the supervision of the patient can hardly be overestimated.