Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Properties of the Leaves of Senna siamea

K. F. Oyebade, A. J. Daspan, Y. Denkok, T. E. Alemika, O. S. Ojerinde

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 22-29
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i130235

The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of leaves of Senna siamea. A sequential solvent extraction procedure was used in extracting powdered Senna leaves, starting with hexane, ethylacetate, ethanol and distilled water, respectively. Dry extracts obtained were tested at various concentrations against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans. Antioxidant (Qualitative and quantitative) and antiproliferative tests were carried out on samples of the dry extracts. Ethylacetate extract of Senna siamea showed the highest antibacterial activity against S. typhi (zone of inhibition 15.0 mm) at concentration of 500mg/ml. The aqueous extract had the highest antioxidant activity, evidenced by a low IC50 value of 12.89µg/ml. Antiproliferative activity was determined by calculating the percentage inhibition of germination of Sorghum bicolor L. seeds under appropriate conditions. Plants that inhibit seed germination may inhibit tumour growth. At 24 hours, the plant showed strong antiproliferative activity as evidenced by the high percentage inhibition. Ethanolic extract had the highest antiproliferative activity (90%) at 5000µg/ml, followed by the aqueous extract (88.5%). However, at 48 hours, all organic extracts showed very weak antiproliferative activity as evidenced by the low % inhibition. Only the aqueous extract showed considerable antiproliferative activity at 5000µg/ml (45%). This implies that the aqueous extract has considerable antiproliferative activity, hence, it may be a promising anticancer drug or has components that have anticancer properties. This shows that Senna leaves could serve as source of bioactive compounds with potential antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Artepillin C Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Cell Cycle Arrest at G0/G1 Phase Accompanied by Up-Regulation of p27Kip1 in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells

Takashi Hashimoto, Weitao Shang, Kazuki Kanazawa

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 30-43
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i130236

Artepillin C, 3, 5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, is one of the bioactive constituents in Brazilian propolis. In the present study, the anticarcinogenic activity of this compound was investigated in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Artepillin C inhibited the cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner accompanied by G0/G1 phase arrest in the cell cycle. This compound caused a decrease in the phosphorylation levels of the retinoblastoma protein at Ser780 and Ser807/811 and a decrease in the kinase activity of the cyclinD and CDK4 complex without any change in these protein levels. Artepillin C increased the protein level of p27Kip1, known as a CDK inhibitor. This up-regulation was regulated by both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, i.e., the treatment increased the mRNA of p27Kip1 and decreased the proteosome activity. Thus, artepillin C induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase accompanied by up-regulation of p27Kip1, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation in HepG2 cells. This study suggested that artepillin C will be a promising anti-cancer agent against hepatoma cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Effect of Jatropha integerrima (Euphorbiaceae) on the renal Function of Male Albino Wistar Rats Exposed to Chromium

M. J. Andy-Nwokocha, E. O. Nwachuku, E. S. Bartimaeus, C. C. Obunwo

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 44-52
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i130237

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Jathropha interrigima on renal function of male Albino Wistar rats exposed to chromium.

Study Design:  The study is an experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between March 2020 and December 2020.

Methodology: A total of 30 male Albino Wistar rats that weighed between 140-210g were used for this study. This study was done in three phases: Acute, Sub-chronic and Chronic phases and Jathropha interrigima extract was given to the rats as a prophylaxis (PRE) within the three phases and as a therapeutic (POST) substance within the three phases. Blood samples were collected at the end of each phase for both PRE and POST by cardiac puncture and separated into microvials tubes for the evaluation of the renal parameters listed above using a Selectra Pro-S automated chemistry analyzer. The kidneys were also harvested for histological studies using haematoxilin stain. Data was analysed using SPSS version 22.0 and p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: For the Acute Phase, the rats exposed to Chromium (Treatment Group) given the Jathropha extract prophylactically(PRE) had mean Potassium level( 7.33 ± 0.51mmol/l) which was significantly higher than the positive control (5.5 ± 0.42mmol/l); whereas for the Treatment group given the Jathropha extract therapeutically (POST) had mean Sodium level (134.7 ± 2.08mmol/l) which was significantly higher than the negative control (126.5 ± 2.21mmol/l) and the positive control( 130.0 ± 0.01mmol/l), also a CRP level (1.6 ± 0.06u/ml) which was significantly higher than the PC ( 1.5±0.0u/ml1) and NC (1.3± 0.01u/ml) and a KIM level (16.7±0.10u/ml) which was significantly higher than the PC(14.3±0.01u/ml) and NC ( 1.3±0.01u/ml) respectively. In the Sub-chronic phase, Rats in the PRE had TG mean CRP (1.5±0.42u/ml) and KIM (16.1±1.72iu/l) which were significantly higher than the NC and PC (1.2±0.07); whereas those in POST had mean Potassium level (4.5 ± 0.20) which was significantly lower than PC and NC, a mean Bicarbonate level (20.0 ± 1.00) which was higher than PC and NC. And an Anion Gap (12.7 ± 0.58) which was significantly lower than the controls. Mean CRP, KIM, Urea and Creatinine levels in the treatment group where significantly lower than in the controls. A similar result occurred at the chronic phases for both PRE and POST.  

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that exposure to Chromium caused a Renal injury and Jathropha interrigima may have the potential to heal or reverse the injurious effect if given as a therapy for upto 30 to 60 days.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on Iris Manifestations between COVID-19 Severe Cases and Non-COVID Individuals

Y. Rosy Ayda, A. Mooventhan, M. H. Vinothkumar, C. A. Kayelarasi, S. Vijaykanth, N. Manavalan

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 53-60
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i130238

Aims: To compare the iris manifestations between COVID-19 positive (severe) cases and their age and gender matched non-COVID-19 individuals.

Study Design and Setting: A comparative cross sectional survey performed in Government Omandurar Medical College, Chennai

Methodology: This study was performed to compare the iris manifestations between COVID-19 positive (severe) cases (n = 119) and their age and gender matched non-COVID-19 individuals (n = 119). Iris manifestations (both right and left eyes) of all the subjects (both study and control groups) were observed at only one point in time, and was compared between the groups.

Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics (Frequency distribution and percentage) were performed using Microsoft excel 2010. Within-group analysis was performed using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test, while the between-groups (study and control) analysis was performed using Chi-square test with the use of statistical package for the social sciences, version 16. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: The research findings in right iris showed a significant difference at p<0.05 in Inner Pupillary Border (IPB), Autonomic Nerve Wreath (ANW), Scurf Rim (SCR), Inflammatory Sign (IS) and Lung Lesion (LL), while no significant difference at p<0.05 in Pupil Size (PS), Absorption Ring (AR), Iris Constitution (IC) and Stress Ring (STR) between the study and control groups. Likewise, the results of the left iris showed a significant difference at p<0.05 in IPB, ANW, SCR, LL and STR, while no significant change at p<0.05 in PS, IC, AR and IS between the study and control groups.

Conclusion: The paper aid comparison of the iris manifestations between COVID-19 positive and their age and gender matched non-COVID-19 individuals. The findings are of broad use to the scientific and medical communities searching for safe, cost-effective diagnostic approach. The present study is important in furthering our understanding of the importance of looking into the iris for diagnostic purpose.

Open Access Review Article

Scientific Basis for the Innovative Uses of Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) mentioned by Unani Scholars in different ailments

Jamal Akhtar, Fouzia Bashir, Salma Bi

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i130234

The Unani Medicine is a comprehensive medical system, which meticulously deals with the various states of health and disease. It provides promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative healthcare. The fundamentals, diagnosis and treatment modalities of the system are based on scientific principles and holistic concepts of health and healing. The history of Unani Medicine is traced back to ancient Egypt and Babylon, but Hippocrates (460–370 BC) is the father of Unani Medicine who set the ground for Medicine to develop it as a systematic science. Other scholars like Galen (129-200 AD); Rabban Ṭabarī (775-890 AD), al Rāzī (865-925 AD) and Ibn Sīnā (980-1037 AD) developed Unani Medicine to great heights. The system is enriched with detailed therapeutic uses of plant, mineral and animal origin drugs. Ibn Baytār’s classical pharmacopoeia describes 1400 medicinal plants and minerals, while the largest Indian compendium by Muḥammad Najm al Ghanī published in 1930, describes 2500 natural products. Unani scholars retain its traditional strength successfully and also benefitting from contemporary scientific development over the years. The system fully appropriated the paradigm of validation of existing knowledge on modern scientific parameters as well as new action of existing drugs was also discovered. Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) is a commonly used medicinal plant of Unani Medicine which has Blood Purifier, Abortifacient, Analgesic, Astringent, Brain Tonic, Diuretic properties and used in the treatment of different diseases, e.g. Jarb-o-Hikka (Scabies), Juzaam (Leprosy), Bars (Leukoderma), Iltehaab-e-Mafasil (Arthritis), Dunbal (Boils) and Zarba-o-Saqta (bruises), Su'aal (Bronchitis), Harq-o-Salq (Burn and Scald), Humrah Dimaaghia (Erysipelas), Hasbah (Measles) and Judree (Small Pox) and Suda’ (Headache). This paper is a view to present a snapshot of the scientific aspects and the relevance of Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) mentioned by Unani Physicians in the contemporary and emerging health scenario.