Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Metformin in Combination with a Herbal Capsule (Glucoblock) on Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress Index in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

Ojoye N. Briggs, Kemzi N. Elechi-amadi, Justice C. Ohaka, Edna O. Nwachuku, Bartimaeus S. Ebirien-agana

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 18-25
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i330246

Aim: This study evaluated the effects of metformin in combination with a herbal capsule (glucoblock) on insulin resistance and oxidative stress index in type 2 diabetic rats.

Methodology: A total of 35 male Wistar albino rats weighing between 120-220 g were used for this study. The rats were placed on high fat diet, and diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg body wt). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was determined using the glucose oxidase method. Fasting plasma insulin (FPI), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were quantitatively determined by a rat-specific sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Insulin resistance (IR) was determined using the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) method. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was determined by the ratio of TOS to TAS. Phytochemical analysis on the herbal capsule was done using classical methods.

Results: The results revealed the presence of alkaloids (100.31μg/mg), flavonoids (131.45μg/mg), cardiac glycosides (55.93μg/mg) and saponins (61.47μg/mg) in the herbal drug glucoblock. The results showed significantly lower FPG levels in the treatment groups when compared to the diabetic control. Group 3 administered metformin had significantly higher FPG levels compared to the negative control. Group 4 administered the herbal drug glucoblock and group 5 administered a combination of metformin and glucoblock, showed no significant differences in FPG levels when compared to the negative control. The diabetic control had significantly higher FPI levels compared to the negative control and treatment groups. The treatment groups showed no significant differences in FPI levels when compared to the negative control. HOMA-IR was significantly higher in the diabetic control compared to the negative control and treatment groups. Also, HOMA-IR values in the treatment groups showed no significant difference compared to the negative control except for group 3 (metformin), that was significantly higher than the negative control. SOD was significantly lower in the diabetic control, compared to the negative control and treatment groups. There were no significant differences in SOD levels in the treatment groups compared to the negative control. TOS levels in the negative control group and treatment groups were significantly lower, compared to the diabetic control. TAS was significantly lower in the diabetic control and treatment groups compared to the negative control. OSI in the diabetic control was significantly higher, compared to the negative control and treatment groups. Also, the treatment groups had significantly higher OSI compared to the negative control.

Conclusion: High fat diet and streptozotocin induction produced significant insulin resistance and oxidative stress in the diabetic rats. Glucoblock was more effective in reducing insulin resistance compared to metformin. The combination showed synergistic drug-herb reaction as glucoblock potentiated the actions of metformin. Both showed antioxidant potential but were not effective in lowering oxidative stress to normal levels. There is need to incorporate antioxidant therapy in the treatment protocol for diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Phytochemical Analysis of the Leaves and Stem of Five Species of Sida L.

Margaret Emmanuel Bassey, Imoh Imeh Johnny, Omodot Timothy Umoh, Utibe-Ima Monday George

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 26-31
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i330247

This study is aimed at evaluating the qualitative phytochemical constituents of the leaf and stem of five common species of Sida collected in Uyo metropolis. These species are medicinal plants used in folk medicine for the management of testicular swelling, elephantiasis, skin disease, fever, ulcer and urinary disease. Phytochemical screening was carried out on Sida acuta Burm. f, Sida stipulata Cav., Sida rhombifolia L., Sida corymbosa R. E. Fr. and Sida sp. using standard methods. Saponins, Tannins and Cardiac glycosides were present in the stem and leaves of all the five species. However, Tannins were strongly present in the leaves while Cardiac glycosides were strongly present in the stems of all the five species. Trace amounts of Phlobatannins were also present in the leaves and stems of all species. Terpenoids were present only in the leaves of S. rhombifolia and absent in all others. The strong presence of Saponins in both stem and leaf extracts as well as the presence of alkaloid in the leaves of Sida sp. differentiated it from the other four species.  The taxonomic implication of this is discussed in the work. The presence of these phytochemicals also lends credence for their usage in folk medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidants effects of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis in Wister Albino Rats

Jude Nwaogu, Babangida Abubakar, Mustapha Sahabi Aliyu

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 32-39
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i330248

Aim: The aim is to evaluate the antioxidant potentials of Eucalyptus camaldulensis methanol stem bark extract (ECMSBE) on Wister albino rats.

Methodology: The phytochemical screening of ECMSBE was conducted using standard methods. A total of 36 albino rats were used for the antioxidant studies. The rats were divided into six (6) groups of six rats. Control group received distilled water orally at 2ml/kg. Oxidative stress was induced in groups 2 to group 6 CCl4 (1ml/kg, s.c) at every 72hrs for 10 days. Group 2 was untreated while groups 3 – 6 received doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200mg/kg of ECMSBE respectively. On the 11th day, the rats were sacrificed and the liver was removed and homogenised and oxidative stress parameters were determined.

Results: Phytochemical analysis of ECMSBE revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids and resins. There was no significant difference (P<.05) between the CCl4 induced group and the group treated with ECMSBE (50mg/kg). However, their concentrations were significantly different from the group treated with ECMSBE (100mg/kg – 200mg/kg) when compared to the group treated with CCl4 Only. The CCl4-induced group had its vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E concentrations significant different (P<.05) from the groups treated with ECMSBE (100, 150 and 200mg/kg body weight). There was no significant difference (P>.05) in the levels of SOD, CAT and GPx between the group induced with CCl4 only and the group treated with ECMSBE (50mg/kg), however, it these concentrations were significantly higher (P<.05). The enzymatic antioxidants concentration in the normal control group was not significantly different (P>.05) when compared the group that was treated with ECMSBE (200mg/kg)

Conclusion: The result suggest that the extract of E. camaldulensis possessed antioxidant properties which can be used as effective protecting agents against oxidative stress and other diseases.

Open Access Review Article

Emotional Intelligence in Nursing: The Heart of the Art – A Review

Patsey Sera Castelino, Theresa Leonilda Mendonca

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i330244

Emotional labour has long been recognized as a necessary part of nursing practice. Nurses often provide care for patients and families who are suffering and where emotions are heightened. Emotions play an important role in the relationship and communication between nurses, patients and families. Nowadays nursing is becoming more and more technical. The rational mind and the emotional mind need to be balanced partners for the nurse-patient relationship to be harmonious. Every nursing intervention is affected by the master aptitude of emotional intelligence. People who are emotionally intelligent see themselves as more optimistic, as they are better able to understand, manipulate, and regulate their emotions. This paper reflects on how emotional intelligence contributes immensely to the art and craft of nursing which is a practice discipline.

Open Access Review Article

The Review of Stem Cell Therapy in Nigeria: The Way Forward

C. Chukwunonyerem, Ogwunga, N. Mercy, Madubuike, C. Okechukwu, Josephat, U. Emmanuel, Nwakwasi

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 7-17
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i330245

Stem cells are unspecialized biological cells associated with self-renewal and proliferation abilities. Stem cell therapy involves the use of stem cells to deliver safe, effective, viable and consistent therapeutic interventions for debilitating health conditions. Many global researchers are striving to overcome the challenges associated with this therapy and Nigerians are not exempted from this struggle. As the country's health sector have suffered rigorous torments because of poor medical care and mismanagement of health facilities. However, it is expected that Nigeria should at least harbour one of the largest stem cell centres in Africa, to help cater for its citizens as well as non-citizens. Notwithstanding the ethical, financial, social, political, and religious challenges facing stem cell therapy in Nigeria, there is still hope for the nation’s health sector to strive past these hurdles in the coming years but only if priority is placed on the well-being of citizens rather than in the search for profit. Future stem cell research in Nigeria should include the treatment of communicable and non-communicable diseases and will be of great importance if the government could harness stem cell therapy as a tool to boost its economy. Hence, this review paper focuses mainly on the present status of stem cell therapy in Nigeria and the way forward.