Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Survey and Evaluation of Anti-Salmonella Potentials of Commonly Used Plants for Typhoid Treatment in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

Temitope Deborah, Olaniyi, Tamilore Modupe Awodugba, Adewale, Adetutu

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i130254

This study assessed the sensitivity of S. typhi to extracts of commonly used plants in treatment of typhoid in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. Ethnobotanical survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Powdered leaves of plants were extracted by maceration in distilled water. In vitro sensitivity of S. typhi to the extracts were assessed using agar well diffusion method. Groups of rats were infected orally with 0.5 McFarland suspension of S. typhi. Bacteremia in the animals was monitored by plating on Salmonella-Shigellar agar. Biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Histological analysis was performed using H&E staining method.  S. typhi was sensitive only to P. guajava and A. indica leaf extracts. V. amygladina (90.31%) and C. papaya (92.26%) showed highest percentage inhibition of S. typhi comparable with ciprofloxacin (99.86%). Haematological parameters varied significantly (p<0.05) among the groups. Antioxidant status of rats, total protein, albumin and the corresponding globulin level increased significantly (p<0.05) in the groups treated with P. guajava and A. indica. C. papaya and C. citratus ameliorated the histopathological damages observed in the liver and intestine of S. typhi infected rats. The studied plants have direct activities against S. typhi, thus reflecting the reason for their combination in traditional system of medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross-sectional Study to Assess the Nutritional Status of Cancer Clients at Selected Hospitals of Mangaluru – A Pilot Study

. Shambhavi, S. Shanthi

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 16-22
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i130255

Aims: Malnutrition is an overlooked and undertreated problem among the cancer population. It is necessary to identify at-risk patients early and provide appropriate and effective nutritional interventions which in turn help the cancer patients to improve treatment tolerance and prognosis. Hence, the study was undertaken with the aim to assess the nutritional status of cancer clients admitted in the hospital.

Study design: A cross sectional descriptive survey was used.

Place and Duration of Study: Oncology wards of the AJ Institute of Medical Science and Research Centre, Mangalore between December 2019 to March 2020, then again December 2020 to February 2021.

Methodology: We included 100 cancer patients (39 males and 61 females). Participants were selected purposively. Head, neck and breast cancer patients who are aged above 18 years, admitted in the wards were included in the study. Data were collected by using demographic proforma and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scale.

Results: Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study revealed that more than half (56%) of the cancer clients are malnourished and 43% are at risk for malnutrition. Study found that there is a significant association of degree of malnutrition with demographic variables such as education and family income (at p=.05)

Conclusion: Based on the result, it was concluded that the patients with cancer should undergo nutrition screening at the early so that appropriate nutrition intervention could be planned to have positive outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Case Study of Complementary Alternative Medicines in Primary Healthcare in Ghana

Raphael Nyarkotey Obu, Lawrencia Aggrey–Bluwey

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 23-33
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i130256

Background: The embryonic field of complementary alternative medicine in Ghana is gradually taking shape. Alternative medicine in Ghana is an important system of medical practice with legislation currently pending for promulgation.

Objectives: To support this embryonic industry for potential role into our primary healthcare and public health system, there is a need for robust health care policy in the area of standardization coupled with strong political willpower and research in Ghana. The aim of this case study is to reflect the role of complementary alternative medicine in primary healthcare in Ghana.

Methods: The study incorporates a mixed method engaged in integrated data analysis to investigate the challenges of practitioners of complementary alternative medicines as primary healthcare givers. Additionally, it evaluates the pull factors that drive consumers to complementary alternative remedies from the perspectives of the practitioners and finally, to evaluate the opinions of practitioners on consumers’ push factors from mainstream medicine using Ghana as a case model.

Results: This study demonstrates that there is a role of complementary alternative medicine in primary healthcare delivery as well as the public health system. However, there are multifactorial challenges in the sector as respondents outlined lack of standardization, disunity and mistrust between complementary alternative medicine and mainstream medical practice. Some of these opposing forces prevent recognition of these remedies into the national healthcare delivery system. 

Conclusion: While our findings demonstrate that there is a role of complementary alternative medicines in our public health and primary healthcare in Ghana, we recommend collaboration between complementary alternative and conventional medical practitioners for improvement of quality of life the consumers. We are of the view that, unhealthy competition between the two medical systems should be controlled.

Open Access Original Research Article

Naturopathic Medicine and Public Health Management in Ghana; A Mixed Questionnaire Study

Raphael Nyarkotey Obu, Lawrencia Aggrey-Bluwey

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 34-50
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i130257

Background: Naturopathic medicine is at its embryonic stage of development in Ghana and West Africa in entirety. In jurisdictions where Naturopathic medicine is well regulated, Naturopathic practitioners are well integrated into the primary healthcare delivery team. In Ghana, the case is quite different due to a myriad of issues.

Objectives: This study examines the role of Naturopathic medicine in Public Health in Ghana and potential policy direction for adoption of Naturopathic protocols in global pandemic management, the challenges faced by Naturopathic Physicians in primary healthcare delivery, and the challenges of Naturopathic Medical Students on their clerkship at one of the designated government Hospitals. 

Methods: The study adopted a mixed questionnaires study engaged in integrated data analysis. The respondents in this study were selected Naturopathic Medical Students of the Nyarkotey College of Holistic Medicine, Ghana. 

Results: Out of a sample size of 28, 100% (28) believed that, there is a role of Naturopathic medicine in public health management. 95% asserted that very little naturopathic remedies have been employed in the fight against Covid-19 in Ghana. There was also a unanimous agreement (100%) that Ghana needs to adopt a National Policy on Naturopathic remedies in Public Health. 

Conclusion: Naturopathic medicine should be embraced fully into Ghanaian primary healthcare delivery. It is important to look at the best practices which exist in other jurisdictions such as China and India for adoption. It is time for the policy makers to speed up the passage of the Traditional and Alternative Medicine bill.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Phytochemistry of Aqueous, Ethanolic and Methanolic Extracts of Morus mesozygia Linn. Stapf., Twig

Marcella Tari Joshua, Edna O. Wachuku, N. Boisa, Nsirim Nduka

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 51-61
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i130258

Aim: The aim of this study was to phytochemically analyze the aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic twig extracts of the species Morus mesozygia Linn. Stapf.

Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the Plant Anatomy and Physiology Research Laboratory, University of Port Harcourt, between July, 2018 and November, 2018.

Methodology: Morus mesozygia linn twigs were collected and washed with distilled water, air dried for seven days and milled into fine powder. Maceration method was used to extract the powdered twig into a brownish paste using three different solvents; distilled water, ethanol and methanol. The different plant extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening for alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, tannins and anthraquinones. Quantitative phytochemical analysis was done using a Gas chromatography – Mass Spectroscopy machine.

Results: The results of this study showed that the powdered Morus mesozygia linn twigs contained flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, but not anthraquinones. The methanolic and aqueous twig extracts contained high amounts of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates and tannins, while the ethanolic extract also contained high amounts of the aforementioned phytochemicals in the same proportion, but had saponins in moderate amounts. It also showed that the methanolic twig extract had more carbohydrate than the other two extracts. The result of the GC-MS analysis showed that the three extracts contained complex compounds in varying amounts.

Conclusion: The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses test results of Morus mesozygia Linn Stapf. revealed the presence of the substances like alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, oils, phenolic compounds, tannins and some complex compounds discovered using GC-MS technique, in their varying concentrations for the three different extracts.