Open Access Minireview Article

A Mini-review on the Phytochemistry and Pharmacobiology of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae): Towards future research directions

Blaise Mbembo Wa Mbembo, Colette Masengo Ashande, Lionel Asamboa Shotsha, Samy Ngunde Te Ngunde, Blanchard Mayele Masasi, Joseph Tshidibi Dipa, Sylvain Zogi Ngbo, Jean-Jacques Amogu Domondo, Dorothée D. Tshilanda, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, Pius T. Mpiana, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i230261

Medicinal plants are suppliers of molecules used in both modern and traditional therapy. One of these plants is Azadirachta Indica (also known as the neem tree).Originally from Asia (India), this plant is currently widespread and cultivated in several countries in the world, including in Africa, because of its extraordinary therapeutic properties. A survey carried out on the Internet revealed that A. indica contains various secondary metabolites such as: Azadirone, Nimocimol, Azadiradione, Epoxyazadiradione, nimbinin, salannin, nimbanal, salannol acetate, nimbandiol, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, gedunin, nimbinene, nimbolide, mahmoodin, margolonone, isomargolonone, azadirachtin, epicatechin, catechin, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, anthraquinone, anthocyanins. The main structures of these different molecules were drawn using the ChemBioDraw Ultra 12.0 software package. As a result, it has been demonstrated that these compounds confer several pharmacological properties on the neem tree, including anticancer, antifungal, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiplasmodial, and anthelmintic activities. Because of its high anthocyanin content, A. indica could be an interesting candidate for the development of an anti-sickle cell drug.

Open Access Minireview Article

Aesthetic Significance of Solah Shringar (Sixteen Ornaments) in Unani Medicine

Nazim Husain, Mohd Khalid

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 69-81
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i230265

Ancient people were as passionate about the aesthetics of appearance as are individuals of today. Physical appearance has consistently been an inseparable part of daily human growth, and most individuals prefer to be labelled as beautiful and handsome. The practice of ‘Solah Shringar’ comprises sixteen ways of adorning a woman's body in the Hindu as well as Muslim ceremonies in India. The description of Solah Shringar is commonly found in the writings of Hindi poets. Different poets and scholars have enlisted various cosmetics in their writings from time to time. In medieval India, the Solah Shringar was referred to the seven plus nine items in which seven were connoted as Haft Qalam Ārāyish along with other nine ornaments. These sixteen aesthetics have greater relevance with Unani therapeutics. This article is a sincere attempt to critically analyse the therapeutic and cosmetic importance of sixteen ornaments of medieval India in the light of Unani medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Some Toxicological Studies of Methanol Leaves Extract Lannea acida in Wistar Albino Rats

Jude Nwaogu, Aminu Umar Argungu, Sadiq Abubakar Sifawa

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 53-62
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i230263

Aim: The current study determined phytochemical constituents evaluated the acute and sub-chronic toxic profiles of Lannea acida methanol leaves extract (LAMLE) in Wistar albino rats

Methodology: The phytochemical screening of LAMLE was conducted using standard methods. A total of 31 male albino rats were used for the antioxidant studies. A total of 31 male albino rats were used for the toxicological study. The LD50 was determined using six (6) rats according to OECD, 2001 using fixed limit dose. For the sub-chronic study, the rats were divided into five (5) groups of five (5) rats. Control group (group 1) received distilled water orally 2ml/kg. Groups (2-5) received doses of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg of the extracts. The experiment lasted for 28 days.

Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of Flavonoids, Phenols, Tannins, Saponins, Alkaloids and Steroids. The LD50 of the extract was found to be greater than 5000mg/kg. There were significant reduction in the concentration of ALT, ALP and ALB (P<.05) in the group that received the highest dose of the extract when compared to the normal control while other liver biomarkers were not significantly different (P>0.05) from the control. The sub-chronic dose of 2000mg/kg of the extracts shows significant (P<.05) decrease in all kidney function biomarkers except chloride when compared to the control. The haematological parameters (WBC, RBC, HGB, Neutruphils) showed a significant decrease in Group 5 when compared to the normal control group while MCV and lymphocytes showed significant decrease (P<.05) when compared to the control.  

Conclusion: The result suggests that the methanol leaves extracts of Lannea acida is relatively safe and can be used in medicinal formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cough Trick Technique on Vaccination Prick Pain among Preschool Children

P. Thenmozhi, B. Aparna Roshini

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 63-68
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i230264

Aims: To determine the effectiveness of the Cough trick technique on vaccination prick pain among preschool children.

Study Design: Quantitative approach with true experimental research design.

Place and Duration of Study: Pranav baby clinic, Chennai, from May 2021 to June 2021.

Methodology: True experimental post-test only research design was adopted to conduct the study with a samples of 40 children. Children were randomly allocated into the experimental group (n=20) and the control group (n=20). Demographic variables were collected from mothers of preschoolers using a structured questionnaire. The cough trick technique was administered to the experimental group during intramuscular vaccination whereas the control group received the regular technique of the intramuscular vaccination. The post-test level of pain was assessed by FLACC scale for both the group. The data were tabulated and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS statistical package.

Results: The result of the study shows that in the experimental group, 14(70%) had mild pain and 6(20%) had no vaccination prick pain whereas in the control group, 14(70%) had severe pain and 6(20%) had moderate vaccination prick pain. Independent‘t’ test reveals that there is a significant difference in the level of pain after administration of the cough trick technique between the experimental and control at the level of  P<0.05.

Conclusion: The finding of the present study concludes that cough trick technique is an effective and easy method to minimize and reduce the pain during intramuscular vaccination. It is a simple distraction technique that can be effective in helping children cope with the pain of immunization.

Open Access Review Article

Silver Hull Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a Part of Nature that Offers Best Health and Honour

Sumanta Mondal, Kausik Bhar, Suvendu Kumar Sahoo, Ganapaty Seru, Md. Ashfaquddin, Nitesh Kumar Pradhan, Md. Anjum, Suraj Molla

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 22-52
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i230262

The gluten-free pseudocereal Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Silver hull buckwheat) belongs to the Polygonaceae family, which has a long history of both edible and medicinal use. It's a highly nutritious food ingredient that's been shown to have a variety of health benefits. Plasma cholesterol levels are lowered, neuroprotection is given, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic effects are provided, and hypertension conditions are improved thanks to Silver hull buckwheat. It has also been stated to have prebiotic and antioxidant properties. The aim of this review was to include an up-to-date and detailed study of F. esculentum. Furthermore, the potential for future research was addressed. Flavonoids, phenolics, fagopyritols, triterpenoids, hormones, and fatty acids are among the various compounds derived from F. esculentum. The main active ingredients were believed to be flavonoids and phenolic compounds. All of the information presented leads us to believe that Silver hull buckwheat has a strong medicinal potential. However, further research is needed to better understand its bioactive constituents, their structural functions, and molecular mechanisms underlying.