Open Access Short Research Article
Background: A variety of pollutants are discharged during gas flaring and these are detrimental to animals and the environment. These pollutants are linked to a range of adverse health impacts including cancer, neurological, reproductive and developmental effects. Furthermore, some of the pollutants such as sulphur dioxide cause environmental issues including acid rain as well as the production of greenhouse gases and this contributes to climate change. This article evaluates the public health impact of environmental pollution in areas with gas flares.
Methodology: This research followed a mixed method approach of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Descriptive statistics were followed with frequency distribution of respondents to the Likert scaled questions. The nominal knowledge level of respondents was determined from their Likert scaled responses to questions. ANOVA comparisons were made between the subgroups of demographic factors to determine differences in knowledge level. MANOVA was also carried out to determine the influence of educational and social levels as well as duration of stay in the community.
Outcome: Evaluation of the nominal knowledge level of respondents determined from Likert scale shows no statistically significant differences between demographic subgroups. Further, ANOVA of nominal knowledge between educational subgroups shows gradient increase but no statistical difference.
Conclusion: The community has knowledge on the negative impact of gas flaring. This report increases understanding of community awareness about the effects of gas flares on the environment and health.
Open Access Short Research Article
Background: Gas flaring occurs during crude oil extraction and can have adverse implications for the community’ health and the environment. Reports show that residents complain about ill-health e.g. insomnia due to heat generated during gas flaring. This article therefore compares the impact on health in gas flaring host and non-gas flaring host communities.
Methodology: This research followed a mixed method approach of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Six questions were asked on occupation, residence, distance from the gas flare, social status in community, health status and family health history. Two questions assessed health status as well as family health history of participants and were semi-qualitative. All questions were adopted from a previously published report. Comparison of environmental and occupational data between host and neighbouring communities was done.
Outcome: Nearness of residence to gas flare sites show increased frequency in the number of ill health issues in respondents and their families. The impact of gas flaring i.e. ill health is high in those near to the site and diabetes is more prevalent amongst other ill-health conditions surveyed. Multiple comparisons show that the group farthest from gas flare site have significantly least proportion of members who are stressed or suffering respiratory problems.
Conclusion: Impact on health or wellbeing among members of gas flaring host communities are more severe when compared to those far. Government policies need to mitigate the adverse effects of gas flaring and the community needs to be educated on the impacts of gas flaring and how this can be minimised.
Open Access Original Research Article
Alcoholic liver disease is a severe liver disease that affects substantial number of people in different parts of the world. However, there is low level of awareness regarding the disease and poor knowledge of the risk factors. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of alcoholic liver disease among the residents of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, as this will both provide a clear picture of the incidence, as well as, aiding the diagnosis and management of the disease and distinguish it from other forms of liver impairment. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital; a tertiary health facility serving treatment, teaching, health research and referral purposes for primary and secondary health care facilities within Rivers State and its adjoining states. The relationship between gender and age to the assayed parameters were investigated, shows that age (0.793) and sex (0.591) were not statistically significant for the circulating level of aspartate, with age (0.000) significant and sex (0.217) non-significant for alanine amino transaminase, while age (0.830) and sex (1.52) were not statistically significant for gamma T. the prevalence of liver disease is low (8.1%) in the population and this may be attributed to factors such as poor healthcare-seeking attitude among the residents and effective diagnostic tools to detect the anomaly in the liver, especially, at the earliest stages of the disease condition.
Open Access Review Article
Background: Vājīkarana - Aphrodisiacs / Virilification Therapy is one branch of Ashtanga Ayurveda. It deals with preservation and promotion of sexual potency of a healthy man, conception of healthy progeny, and management of sexual and reproductive ailments. Vājīkarana drugs have been selected for the present review due to high prevalence of reproductive disorders among young people below age 40 years, recorded neonatal death caused by congenital anomalies and the urgency of effective medicines in the community.
Objectives: To identify Vājīkarana drugs mentioned in Bhaisajya Rathnavali and analyze the pharmacodynamics properties of commonly used Vājīkarana drugs.
Methodology: The review was mainly based on Vājīkarana drugs mentioned in Bhaisajya Rathnavali by Acharya Govinda Das Sen and commonly used and mostly available drugs have been analyzed according to their pharmacodynamics properties. Collected pharmacodynamics properties from authentic texts and journal articles were tabulated and analysis was done by using SPSS.
Results: Out of 67 Vājīkarana formulae, 208 single drugs were identified which included 83.65% of herbal origin drugs and 74.6% of drug formulae were used to increase the sexual power. 37.3% of the formulae were prepared as Churna (Powder) and most frequently used Anupana (Vehicle) was cow’s milk. Among frequently used & commonly available 10 drugs, Maricha - Piper nigrum has been used in majority of formulae (26.8%). Pharmacodynamics analysis revealed that 80% of drugs were Madhura rasa (sweet in taste), 70% were Guru guna (heavy in property), 70% were Shita virya (cold in potency) and 80% were Madhura vipaka (sweet in post digestive action). Based on modern science, 60% of the drugs had tonic action.
Conclusion: Vājīkarana formulae mentioned in Bhaisajya Rathnavali were mainly used to increase the sexual power of man. Madhura rasa, Guru guna, Shita virya and Madhura vipaka were the pharmacodynamics properties of commonly used drugs in the formulae.
Open Access Review Article
Revive capsule, also called Kedi Revive capsule is a polyherbal formulation manufactured by Kedi healthcare company limited in Hong Kong, China. The drug is widely used around the globe, especially in Africa and Asia for the treatment of erectile dysfunction or enhancement of libido in men. Each capsule contains 400 mg of the constituent herbs including 80 mg of herb Epimedii, 80mg of Radix ginseng, 40 mg of Cordyceps militaris, 80mg of Tribulus terrestris, 80mg of Radix polygoni multiflori, and 40 mg of Eucommia ulmoides, with its effects exerted four hours after administration via the oral route. The adult man dosage is two capsules (800 mg) to be taken once daily for at least 28 days (before significant improvements may be observed when used to treat erectile dysfunction). Phytochemical analysis of the drug reported the presence of flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, polyphenols, alkaloids and quinones. Due to its speculated use in the treatment of erectile dysfunction or enhancement of libido, it may be referred to as an herbal phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, that acts by selectively inhibiting the enzyme phosphodiesterase type-5, and thus enhancing increased arterial blood flow into the penis, which results in penile erection; however, the mechanism of action of this drug may be attributed to the contained phytochemicals. Additionally, due to its increased use, it is highly recommended that further studies be conducted on this drug to ascertain its effects on some biochemical components and vital organs of the body.