Open Access Short Research Article

Community Awareness of Health Problems Associated with Gas Flaring and Programme to Mitigate

Nkemdilim I. Obi, Phillip T. Bwititi, Ezekiel U. Nwose

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 31-41
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i230284

Background: Gas flaring, which occurs as part oil and gas operations results in release of gaseous toxins into the environment thus has a negative impact on the host communities including fauna, flora and humans. Previous studies focused mainly on the contribution of gas flaring to environmental pollution but not on human health. This article assesses disease prevention and treatment programs for ill-health associated with gas flaring.

Methodology: This research followed a mixed method approach of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Qualitative data comprised open-ended questions that sought the thematic views of community on how the companies liaise with either community and/or government, and what they would want the companies to provide to alleviate the health effects of gas flaring. Chi square and correlations were used on quantitative data to determine agreements and statistically significant differences of responses by participants from the questions that were set on Likert scales. Outcome: Chi-square showed statistically significant difference (X2 = z76, p < 0.017), when distribution of responses to Question-1 (Benefit of oil company to the community) and Question-4 (Oil companies awareness of potential health problems in the community) were compared. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected i.e. there is association between variables and awareness of prevalent ill-health due to gas flaring are responded to with preventive and treatment programs.

Conclusion: This notes that there is a relationship between awareness of health problems and intervention and also a lack of capacity among the communities’ low-mid social class to appropriately dialogue with the government for change.

Open Access Short Research Article

Evaluation of Government’s Efforts to Mitigate the Adverse Effects of Gas Flaring in Host Communities

Nkemdilim I. Obi, Phillip T Bwititi, Ezekiel U. Nwose

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 42-50
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i230285

Background: This is a 5th in the series on gas flaring in Niger Delta Nigeria and previous reports have highlighted health impact and comparison of communities, amongst others. Government have mitigation programs whose satisfaction in the communities of Niger Delta is unknown.

Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate government’s efforts at mitigation and adaptation whether there are age and/or gender differences

Methods: This was a quantitative survey cross-sectional study that used Likert scale questionnaire to generate views of the community on the behavioural change wheel (BCW) as well as mitigation and adaptation efforts of the government. Respondents were stratified into age groups and dichotomized in female or male and analysis involved multivariate analysis (MANOVA) to evaluate age and gender differences. Chi-Square tests were performed to assess associations between BCW components mitigation versus adaptation.

Results: A total of 435 respondents were included and the results show levels of inconsistent age and gender differences. Men tended to agree more on government’s BCW albeit not significance achieved, while women agreed more mitigation and adaptation (p < 0.02). On age, the silent generation (>70 years old) group agreed more on BCW, but contrarily disagreed on mitigation and adaptation while younger generation agreed on the latter (0.001). Chi-Square tests show significance for association.

Conclusion: This report highlights divergent views of the community on the discourse of government’s efforts at mitigation and adaptation of gas flaring in Niger Delta Nigeria, thereby providing empirical evidence of generational gap on environmental issue.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reference Ranges of Iron Profiles in Apparently Healthy Elderly in Sokoto, Nigeria

Onuigwe, Festus Uchechukwu, Ibeh, Nancy Chitogu, Amilo, Grace Ifechukwudebelu

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i230281

Background: Iron is an important micronutrient in the body, lead to anaemia, frailty and cognitive disorders in the elderly when deficient.

Aim: This study was aimed to determine reference values of iron profile in apparently healthy elderly persons in Sokoto and compared with the local reference values.

Study Design: This was a comparative study

Duration of Study: The study lasted for a period of one year between January to December, 2020.

Methodology: This was a comparative study involving 105 apparently healthy elderly persons aged 60 years and above in Sokoto metropolis. Serum iron and total-iron binding capacity (TIBC) were determined using Iron Ferrozine method. Serum ferritin, Serum transferrin (Tf) and Serum Transferrin Receptors (sTfR) were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Transferrin Saturation (TS) and Serum Transferrin Receptors ferritin log (sTfR/FL) was calculated.  Data were expressed as percentiles, mean and standard deviation and analysed using t-test and one way ANOVA.

Results: The study established reference ranges of Serum iron,TIBC, Serum ferritin, Tf, sTfR, TS and sTfR/FL was calculated.  in Sokoto. The study showed that iron and ferritin have high reference ranges than the local values in Sokoto. The local values for TIBC, ferritin, sTfR, TS and sTfR/FL were not available. Mean Ferritin (µg/L), sTfR (ng/L) and sTfR/Fl the test subjects were significantly higher in males than females in Sokoto (p=0.026), (p= 0.001), (p=0.044) and (p= 0.003) respectively. Iron, ferritin and TS increased as the BMI was increasing (p=<0.001).

Conclusion: In conclusion, normal reference values obtained in this study notably vary with the local reference ranges used in the Sokoto metropolis. There is a need for each locality to have separate reference ranges for the elderly for their proper diagnosis and management of iron related disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Liver Function Biomarkers and Histopathology in Plasmodium Berghei-Infected Albino Mice Treated with Sodium Bicarbonate

Haruna G. Sunday, Enemali M. Okey, Achimugu I. Isiah, Andafu T. Ali, Yusuf Z. Jimoh, Chibuzo C. Nweze

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 23-30
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i230283

Malaria still remains an endemic disease especially in Sub-saharan Africa. The current study was aimed at evaluating liver function biomarkers and histology in albino mice following their infection with Plasmodium berghei and treated with Sodium Bicarbonate. Twenty mice were divided into five groups of four each. Groups 1; normal control, group 2; infected with P. berghei, untreated, groups 3, 4, 5; infected, treated 84mg/kg NaHCO3 once, twice and thrice respectively. Blood samples and liver were collected for analysis of liver function biomarkers and histopathology by standard procedures. AST was significantly (p<0.05) higher in group 5 (13.33±0.707) when compared to the control (11.33±0.707). ALP activity increased significantly (p<0.05) in group 5 (11.76±0.707) when compared to the control (10.29±0.707). Total protein increased significantly (p<0.05) in all the test groups; 2 (4.29±0.007), 3 (4.09±0.007), 4 (4.46±0.007) and 5 (4.65±0.007) when compared to the control (4.05±0.007). Albumin increased significantly (p<0.05) in all the test groups; 2 (3.58±0.007), 3 (3.76±0.007), 4 (3.61±0.007) and 5 (3.58±0.007) compared to the control (3.57±0.007). Total bilirubin concentration significantly (p<0.05) decreased in groups 3 (0.42±0.007), 4 (0.47±0.007) and 5 (0.48±0.007) compared to the control. Direct bilirubin concentration was significantly (p<0.05) higher in groups 4 (0.20±.007) and 5 (0.22±.007) compared to the control (0.15±.007). Photomicrograph images showed inflammation in group 2; infected, not treated. Sodium bicarbonate did not play ameliorative role against plasmodium berghei infected liver.

Open Access Review Article

“Homoeopathic Perspective of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - Hyperactive Type – A Review”

M. Gnnanaprakasham, Sunny Mathew, N. D. Mohan

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 11-22
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i230282

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is commonly diagnosed neuropsychiatric condition affecting the children and adolescence. Nearly 8 percent of   school - going children were diagnosed as ADHD and mostly as hyperactive type. More than 60 percent of children with ADHD were progressed to grow with the symptoms into adulthood which causes significant impaired academic achievements, poor interpersonal skills, disordered social activities, and various psychiatric disorders like learning disability, substance abuse, mood disorders, disruptive behavior disorder, etc., Homoeopathy a unique system of medicine which provides a beneficial effect on the human body through its ultra-diluted and potentized drug substances adopting holistic approach. There are reliable sources where homoeopathy proves its efficacy in treating ADHD children. This article provides a cluster of remedies derived through repertorisation considering only the symptoms of ADHD hyperactive type which will be helpful in cases where the individualization of the child is difficult to achieve. Considering the symptomatology of ADHD hyperactive type mentioned in DSM V criteria the most indicated remedies among various remedies were Medorrhinum, Nux. Vom, Carcinosinum, Hyoscyamus, Anacardium, Chamomilla, Veratrum. Album, Coffea Cruda, Tarentula etc.