Open Access Case Report

Ashwagandha-Induced Gastric Upset in Post-Covid Patient-A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

Danish Javed, Ahmad Najmi

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i330286

Adverse drug reporting of herbal drugs is less common as they are generally considered as safe. It is also very common to use self-medication by people in the case of herbal drugs. But many     times, mild to severe events have been seen with the use of herbal or ayurvedic medicines. We have reported a case of post-covid patient, who was having complained of headache, body ache, lethargy, backache, generalized weakness and excessive sweating since one weak. Patient had past history of hospitalization due to COVID-19 moderate pneumonia one month back. Patient also had history of type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia and was taking anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive medications continuously. Ashwagandha powder (Withania somnifera), Maha yogaraj guggulu (herbal anti-inflammatory) and Syrup Amynity Plus (herbal immune-booster) were prescribed for these complain. Conversely, moderate severity adverse reaction like nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps were noted after the intake of suspected drug i.e. ashwagandha powder.                            Nevertheless, symptoms were relieved after the de-challenge. This shows a temporal relation of the event with the suspected drug. One more possibility of drug-drug interaction in this case cannot be ruled out completely. Causality assessment was done for this adverse event and it was considered as the “probable” category of the adverse event in WHO causality classification.

Open Access Short Research Article

Assessment of Association between Gas Flaring and Prevalence of Diseases: Delineation of Opinion from Perception

Nkemdilim I. Obi, Phillip T. Bwititi, Josiah O. Adjene, Ezekiel U. Nwose

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 16-23
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i330291

Background: Pollutants are released into the atmosphere by gas flaring, and these cause a range of health problems, including heart disease and respiratory disorders. This article assesses the opinion and perception of the community regarding association between gas flaring and prevalence of diseases.

Methodology: This research followed a descriptive quantitative approach. Purposive survey using 2 Likert scale questionnaires was adopted, and the first questionnaire collected data on distance to gas flare site, health status and family health history, amongst others. The second collected data on perception and knowledge-based opinions regarding association and correlation. Summated Likert scale were collated and descriptive and correlation analysis between distance to gas flare site and number of diseases in respondents and their families were done.

Results: In this purposive survey, there is no correlation between nearness to gas flare and prevalence of diseases. There appears no difference in communities proximal to flare sites compared to non-host communities farther from site. Multivariate analysis further shows that no statistically significant difference between groups, except in comparison of perceptions. Conclusion: This investigation shows a variation from previous observation in this series i.e. that distance to gas flare site is a potential factor influencing community members’ perception about their health impact, but the surveyed opinion of healthcare workers differs. This implies that nearness to gas flare sites mediate perception of negative health impact and this calls for further research to delineate perception from knowledge-based opinion.

Open Access Short Research Article

Gas Flaring in Niger Delta Nigeria and Sustainability Development Goal Framework: Qualitative Survey of the Health Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation

Nkemdilim I. Obi, Phillip T. Bwititi, Ezekiel U. Nwose

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 38-49
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i330293

Background: Petroleum exploitation and production have resulted in various environmental, socio-economic, political and health problems. This study is part of ongoing research to evaluate sustainability development goal in host communities of gas flaring operations.

Objective: The research purposes to generate thematic opinions of the community regarding the risks associated with gas flaring and evaluate the mitigation and adaptation programs of government and oil and gas companies in the Delta region, Nigeria.

Methods: This was qualitative with a quantitative component utilizing a survey of 8 open-ended and 2 semi-quantitative questions. Sample size was N = 488 and participants were over 18 years old. Thematic analysis adopted word cloud, followed by thematic aggregation and quantification.

Results: The response rates were 99.2%, 76.2%, 75.4% and 70.1% for Sections B, C, D, and F, respectively. Over 66% reported negative impacts of gas flaring including specifications of some health problems and stress and respiratory problems were most common. Lack of opinion e.g. on how oil and gas companies liaise with the community (47%) and on how government liaises with companies (63%) were observed.

Conclusion: While the majority of respondents had opinions, they however lacked knowledge regarding what the government and/or oil and gas companies could do on mitigation and adaptation on negative impacts of gas flaring. This therefore calls for awareness campaign and health promotion in the affected communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Warm Epsom Salt Pack over Knee Osteoarthritis-A Randomized Controlled Trial

Ranjini Rajasekharan, Sujatha Dinesh, Prashanth shetty

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 7-15
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i330290

Aims: Osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis which commonly affects weight-bearing joints like the knee, hip, spine, and joints.  Since the effectiveness of conventional medicine on severe types of osteoarthritis is surgical intervention, the patients are seeking alternative medicine. A warm Epsom salt pack is used commonly for pains over joints. Hence this study is undertaken.

Study Design: Randomized Controlled Trial.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Naturopathy, SDM College of Naturopathy and Yogic Sciences, between November 2019 and January2020.

Methodology: From the inpatient department of Shri Dharmasthala Yoga and Nature cure Hospital Shanthivana, hundred subjects diagnosed with osteoarthritis belonging to the age groupof35to75yearswererecruitedandwererandomlyallocated to case (Warm Epsom salt pack) and control group. Subjects were assessed for Goniometry, Visual analog scale (VAS), Shortform-12(SF-12), Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index Scale (WOMAC) before and after the intervention of 20 minutes.

Results: The study was done to evaluate the effect of Warm Epsom salt on Knee Osteoarthritis. There were 100 subjects in the sample. Shapiro-Wilk’s test/Quantile-Quantile (QQ) plot was used to check the normality of variables. In study group there was a significant decrease in Goniometry (p=<0.0001), SF 12 (p=<0.0001), WOMAC (P=<0.0001).  In the control group, other than VAS there were no significant changes in other variables (Goniometry, WOMAC, SF-12).

Conclusion: Our study indicates that a warm Epsom salt pack may reduce pain, stiffness, range of motion, and improves the quality of life. The study revealed that Warm Epsom salt reduced Range of motion from 172.94 to 134.5, WOMAC from 65.94 to 26.38, and Quality of life from 33.98 to 31.22. Results reveal with significant improvement (p<0.001) in pain, swelling, and quality of life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Subacute Toxicity and Hepatoprotective Effects of Sarcocephalus latifolius in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Olubunmi Simeon Oyekunle, Adewale Adetutu, Adijat Funke Ogundola

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 24-37
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i330292

Various studies suggest that mortality due to liver disease in diabetic patients is very high; however, the recognition of DM as the primary cause of chronic liver disease is neglected in medical practice, we therefore evaluated the activities of Sarcocephalus latifolius leaf powder on the liver function of alloxan – induced diabetic rats. Forty-five healthy female albino rats were randomly assigned into 9 different groups; diabetes was induced intraperitonealy with 160 mg/kg of alloxan. Normal and diabetic rats were administered orally with 300, 600, 750 mg/kg/ b.w of S. latifolius. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed for biochemical and histological studies.

The body weight of the normal and diabetic rats increased significantly with S. latifolius treatment, the increase observed in the blood glucose was brought down upon treatment with S. latifolius leaf powder. The activity of ALT increased significantly with 750 mg/kg of S. latifolius leaf powder, while low dose of the plant decreased it significantly in diabetic rats. GGT activity only decreased in the diabetic rats treated with 300 mg/kg of S. latifolius whereas albumin increased significantly (p<0.05) in all the groups administered S. latifolius powder relative to the untreated diabetic group. Bilirubin concentration only increased significantly (p<0.05) in the group administered 750 mg/kg of S. latifolius leaf powder. Histological changes including infiltration of the sinusoids and focal area by inflammatory cells and mild portal congestion were observed in all the groups except the normal and diabetic rats treated with 300 mg/kg of S. latifolius leaf powder. The result of the study showed that S. latifolius could only be encouraged for diabetes management only at low dose and might be hepatotoxic at high dose.