Open Access Original Research Article

Sub-Chronic Administration of Tramadol, Caffeinated Drink and Alcohol Precipitated Dysfunctions in Health Indices of Male Wistar Rats

E. B. Oyewo, J. B. Oso, J. O. Fatoki, A. L. Adedeji, G. E. Adeleke

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 1-29
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430294

Tramadol is a popular drug of abuse among adolescent and young adults in many developing African countries due to the opioid agonist properties. We investigated the health implications of the sub-chronic concurrent abuse of tramadol, caffeinated drink and alcohol in adult male Wistar rats. Tramadol was administered at 40 and 20 mg/kg BW respectively, caffeinated drink at 10 ml/kg BW and alcohol at 2 ml/kg BW. The rats were handled such that: group A received distilled water; groups B and C received tramadol and distilled water; groups D and E received tramadol and caffeinated drink; groups F and Greceived tramadol and alcohol; and groups H and I received caffeinated drink and alcohol respectively. The concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione (GSH),malondialdehyde (MDA),protein carbonyl (PC),protein thiol (PT), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (ox-LDLC), and activities of paraoxonase (PON-1) and acetylcholine esterase (ACE) were determined. Histo-pathological analysis was performed on the liver, kidney, brain and small intestine. The concentrations of blood nitric oxide, GSH and MDA increased (p<0.05) inconsistently with no alterationsin PC (p>0.05). Inconsistent alterations were obtained in blood PON-1 activities across the groups. Decreases were recorded in the GSH and TPT in the liver and brain with increases in PC and MDA (p<0.05). Inconsistent increases were obtained in the concentrations ox-LDLC, VCAM-1, IL-1β and MCP-1, and ACE activities. Consistent alterations were observed in the photomicrographs of the brain, kidney, intestine and liver of rats co-administered 40 mg/kg BW of tramadol withcaffeinated drink or alcohol. The overall findings indicated that the use of tramadol singly at 40 mg/kg BW or co-administered at both doses with caffeinated drink and alcohol precipitated various dysfunctions to health that could reduce the quality of life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Sarcocephalus latifolius Afzel. Ex R.Br. Leaf Powder on the Kidney Function of Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Rats

Olubunmi Simeon Oyekunle, Adewale, Adetutu, Adijat Funke Ogundola

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 35-46
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430296

This study assessed the effects of Sarcocephalus latifolius Afzel. Ex R.Br. leaf powder on the kidney function of alloxan-induced diabetes rats.

Forty-five healthy female albino rats were used in the experiment and assigned into 9 different groups. Diabetes was induced intravenously with 150 mg/kg body weight alloxan. Normal and diabetic rats were administered orally with 300, 600, 750mg/kg/ b.w of S. latifolius. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed and blood with the kidney were harvested for biochemical and histological studies.

In our result, significant (p<0.05) increase was observed in creatinine concentration of diabetic rats, which was significantly (p<0.05) decreased upon administration of 300 and 750 mg/kg body weight of Sarcocephalus latifolius leaf powder. No significant (p>0.05) difference was observed in the urea concentration of all the groups. Significant (p<0.05) difference in sodium concentration was only observed between the diabetic untreated and metformin treated groups whereas, potassium concentration varied significantly (p<0.05) across the groups. Certain degenerative changes in the kidney of normal and diabetic rats treated and untreated with S. latifolius leaf powder were observed but at a lower degree in the group treated with the 300 mg/kg/bw of the leaf powder. The result of this study showed the possible renal toxicity potential of the plant at high dose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative In vitro Antibacterial Properties of Methanol Extracts and Fractions of Myristica fragrans Seed and Thymus vulgaris Leaf

Romanus A. Umoh, Affiong C. Essien, Imoh I. Johnny, Nsima A. Andy, Anwanabasi E. Udoh, Omodot T. Umoh

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 47-58
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430297

The aim of this work was to compare the antibacterial properties of methanol extracts and fractions of Myristica fragrans seed and Thymus vulgaris leaf on the gram positive and negative bacteria.  The Myristica fragrans seeds were crushed, defatted and air-dried. The defatted seed and leaf powders were separately macerated in absolute methanol for 72 hours. The methanol extracts and fractions were reconstituted at different concentrations of 100mg/mL, 80mg/mL, 60mg/mL, 40mg/mL and 20mg/mL for the antibacterial assay by agar diffusion method with activated cultured Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli , incubated at 37oC for 24 hours . The results showed that these plants possess antibacterial activity on the basis of their zones of inhibition. Methanol extract of M. fragrans had a higher activity of 8-19mm on S. aureus than E. coli with 5-14mm range respectively. Ethylacetate fraction had the highest activity with 9-25mm on S. aureus, while chloroform fraction had the highest activity on E. coli with 8-18mm.  For T. vulgaris, the methanol extract had a higher activity of 6-18mm on E. coli than S. aureus of 4-17mm and for the fractions, n-hexane fraction had the highest activity of 7-20mm on S. aureus , while aqueous fraction had the highest activity of 5-18mm on E. coli, compared with zones of inhibition of 18mm against S. aureus  and 28mm against E. coli  for gentamycin of 2mg/mL which was the reference drug. Methanol extracts and fractions of M. fragrans seed and T. vulgaris leaf showed excellent activities on the gram positive and gram negative bacteria but the M. fragrans had a better activity than T. vulgaris.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Jundi-Shapur in Streamlining of ILM-E-TIBB (Medicine)

Younis I. Munshi, Masihuzzaman Ansari

Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research, Page 30-34
DOI: 10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430295

People have always felt the need to seek the knowledge from time immemorial. Be it the knowledge of religion or science or philosophy or astronomy. The knowledge of medicine was confined to cultures till 4th century AD. Every subcontinent and every civilization was having its own traditions to treat the diseases, e.g. Ayurved in India, Egyptian traditional medicine in Egypt, Chinese traditional medicine in China, Iranian Traditional medicine in Iran etc etc.

It was during the 5th century AD when Roman Empire cracked down on its seminaries and the intellectuals were forced to leave the country. Those intellectuals were given refuge by Persian Empire where in a city was established with ultimate autonomy under Khusro, Jundi-Shapur became a prosperous metropolis, refuge, and melting pot for intellectuals from many regions. Shapur II (309-379 A.D.) is credited for conceiving and establishing the nucleus of the university in the latter part of the fourth century. The closing of the Athenian school by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian (AD 539) also drove many leaned Greek physicians to Jundi-Shapur. This was the start of the integration of different traditional medicine of different civilizations. This formed the basis of what we see today as modern medicine. In this way JundiShapur has important role in the development of Medical knowledge and it remained in the leading role until 9th Century AD.