Evaluation of Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Activities of Leaf and Seed Extracts of Telfairia occidentalis

Sandra Peter Magnus

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Martin Osita Anagboso

Department of Microbiology, Madonna University Nigeria, Elele campus, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Imoh Imeh Johnny

Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Uduak Peter Ise *

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Bingham University, Karu, Nigeria.

Jude Efiom Okokon

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Telfairia occidentalis Hook (cucurbitaceae) leaves and seeds, which are used as vegetable in the preparation of soups and as medicine traditionally to treat various diseases by the Ibibios were investigated for genotoxic and cytotoxic effects using Allium cepa test. The effects of the leaves and seeds extracts on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa were investigated using onion bulbs exposed to 2.5 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL, and 10 mg/mL concentrations of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Tap water was used as a negative control and Methotrexate (0.1 mg/ml) was used as a positive control. There was statistically significant (p< 0.05) inhibition of root growth depending on concentration by the extracts when compared with the negative control group. All the tested extracts were observed to have cytotoxic effects on cell division in A. cepa. The extracts-induced chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MNC) formations in A. cepa root tip cells were significant (p<0.05) when compared with control group. The extracts treatment further induced cell death, ghost cells, cells membrane damage, and binucleated cells. The seed extract was found to have a higher cytotoxic and genotoxic effects than the leaf extract. These results suggest that the leaf and seeds extract of Telfairia occidentalis possess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on A. cepa.

Keywords: Genotoxic, cytotoxic, medicinal plants, vegetables, Telfairia occidentalis, Allium cepa, phytochemical, genotoxic, Cucurbitaceae family


How to Cite

Magnus, Sandra Peter, Martin Osita Anagboso, Imoh Imeh Johnny, Uduak Peter Ise, and Jude Efiom Okokon. 2024. “Evaluation of Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Activities of Leaf and Seed Extracts of Telfairia Occidentalis”. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research 25 (3):7-16. https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2024/v25i3521.

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